study showing moxidectin and ivermectin exhibited antiviral activity in Vero E6 cells. Authors indicate that no statistically significant effect was seen in Calu-3/PBEC cells, however Figure 3 shows a dose dependent reduction with ivermectin and moxidectin, and the actual values are not provided. Calu-3 is one of many cell lines derived from human lung carcinomas [journals.physiology.org]
. Calu-3 cells resemble serous gland cells. They do not express 15-lipoxygenase, an enzyme specifically localized to the surface epithelium, but they do express secretory component, secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor, lysozyme, and lactoferrin, all markers of serous gland cells. [journals.physiology.org]
note that the absence of systemic inflammation, circulatory factors, and other paracrine systemic influences is a potential limitation of the isolated cell system.14 In Vitro studies
support the efficacy of ivermectin [Caly, Croci, De Forni, Delandre, Jeffreys, Jitobaom, Jitobaom (B), Li, Liu, Mody, Mountain Valley MD, Segatori, Surnar, Yesilbag]
Dinesh Kumar et al., 17 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 14 authors.