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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Has Ivermectin Virus-Directed Effects against SARS-CoV-2? Rationalizing the Action of a Potential Multitarget Antiviral Agent

Francés-Monerris et al., ChemRxiv, doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12782258.v1
Oct 2020  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 23 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19ivm.org
In silico study showing that ivermectin is capable of interfering in different key steps of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
68 preclinical studies support the efficacy of ivermectin for COVID-19:
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N766, Dengue32,67,68, HIV-168, Simian virus 4069, Zika32,70,71, West Nile71, Yellow Fever72,73, Japanese encephalitis72, Chikungunya73, Semliki Forest virus73, Human papillomavirus52, Epstein-Barr52, BK Polyomavirus74, and Sindbis virus73.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins66,68,69,75, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing33, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination36,76, shows dose-dependent inhibition of wildtype and omicron variants31, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury56,61, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition32, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation5, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro49, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity24, may minimize viral myocarditis by inhibiting NF-κB/p65-mediated inflammation in macrophages55, may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation77, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 by disrupting CD147 interaction78-81, shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-1954,82, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage4, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage35,43, increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system83, has immunomodulatory46 and anti-inflammatory65,84 properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile85.
Francés-Monerris et al., 8 Oct 2020, preprint, 8 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Has Ivermectin Virus-Directed Effects against SARS-CoV-2? Rationalizing the Action of a Potential Multitarget Antiviral Agent
Antonio Francés-Monerris, Cristina García-Iriepa, Isabel Iriepa, Cécilia Hognon, Tom Miclot, Giampaolo Barone, Antonio Monari, Marco Marazzi
The novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus is causing a devastating pandemic in 2020, threatening public health in many countries. An unprecedented rapid and global response has been set in motion to identify efficient antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2, mostly relying on the repurposing of drugs presenting or not previously known antiviral activity. Ivermectin is an approved drug used as antiparasitic in humans and animals with well documented broad-spectrum antiviral properties that emerge from host-directed effects. Recent results reported by Wagstaff and coworkers (Antiviral Research 2020, 178, 104787) show a potent inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 replication in vitro by ivermectin, and clinical trials with human volunteers have already started. However, the mode of action of ivermectin is still largely unknown, especially at the molecular level. Here, we employ advanced molecular dynamics simulations to assess the influence of ivermectin on several key viral protein targets, with the aim to reveal the molecular bases of antiviral mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2. Interestingly, we show that ivermectin could be regarded as a multitarget agent, inhibiting different viral functions. These include blocking the recognition by the SARS-CoV-2 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of the Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2), the interactions with the two viral proteases 3CL pro and PL pro , and the SARS Unique Domain (SUD) non-structural protein. Hence, the wide spectrum of actions involving i) the interference with cell infection, ii) the inhibition of viral replication, and iii) elusion of the host immune system, could point to an unprecedented synergy between host-and virus-directed effects explaining the high anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity observed for this compound. Entry for the Table of Contents Molecular dynamics reveal the interaction hotspots between the antiparasitic drug ivermectin and several SARS-CoV-2 structures. These findings suggest a novel dual mechanism of action for this drug, in which both host-directed and virus-directe effects act synergistically to stop SARS-CoV-2 infection.
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