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Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2

Eweas et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908
Jan 2021  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 102 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments. c19ivm.org
Molecular docking analysis showing that ivermectin efficiently binds to the viral S protein as well as the human cell surface receptors ACE-2 and TMPRSS2; therefore, it might be involved in inhibiting the entry of the virus into the host cell. It also binds to Mpro and PLpro of SARS-CoV-2; therefore, it might play a role in preventing the post-translational processing of viral polyproteins. The highly efficient binding of ivermectin to the viral N phosphoprotein and nsp14 is suggestive of its role in inhibiting viral replication and assembly.
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N7 Götz, Dengue Jitobaom, Tay, Wagstaff, HIV-1 Wagstaff, Simian virus 40 Wagstaff (B), Zika Barrows, Jitobaom, Yang, West Nile Yang, Yellow Fever Mastrangelo, Varghese, Japanese encephalitis Mastrangelo, Chikungunya Varghese, Semliki Forest virus Varghese, Human papillomavirus Li, Epstein-Barr Li, BK Polyomavirus Bennett, and Sindbis virus Varghese.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins Götz, Kosyna, Wagstaff, Wagstaff (B), inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Mody, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing Fauquet, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination Boschi, Scheim, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury Abd-Elmawla, Ma, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition Jitobaom, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation Vottero, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity Parvez (B), may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation Liu (C), shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-19 DiNicolantonio, Zhang, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage Zhao, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage Liu, Liu (B), increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system Hazan, has immunomodulatory Munson and anti-inflammatory DiNicolantonio (B), Yan properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile Descotes.
Eweas et al., 25 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 3 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
Ahmad F Eweas, Amr A Alhossary, Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim
Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908
SARS-CoV-2 is a newly emerged coronavirus that causes a respiratory disease with variable severity and fatal consequences. It was first reported in Wuhan and subsequently caused a global pandemic. The viral spike protein binds with the ACE-2 cell surface receptor for entry, while TMPRSS2 triggers its membrane fusion. In addition, RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), 3 -5 exoribonuclease (nsp14), viral proteases, N, and M proteins are important in different stages of viral replication. Accordingly, they are attractive targets for different antiviral therapeutic agents. Although many antiviral agents have been used in different clinical trials and included in different treatment protocols, the mode of action against SARS-CoV-2 is still not fully understood. Different potential repurposed drugs, including, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, ivermectin, remdesivir, and favipiravir, were screened in the present study. Molecular docking of these drugs with different SARS-CoV-2 target proteins, including spike and membrane proteins, RdRp, nucleoproteins, viral proteases, and nsp14, was performed. Moreover, the binding affinities of the human ACE-2 receptor and TMPRSS2 to the different drugs were evaluated. Molecular dynamics simulation and MM-PBSA calculation were also conducted. Ivermectin and remdesivir were found to be the most promising drugs. Our results suggest that both these drugs utilize different mechanisms at the entry and post-entry stages and could be considered potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 replication.
AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS ASA-M contributed conception of the study and critically revised the manuscript. AFE conducted the molecular docking and wrote the first draft of the manuscript. AAA performed the molecular dynamics simulation. ASA-M, AFE, and AAA shared analyzing and discussing the results. All authors contributed to manuscript revision, read, and approved the submitted version. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2020. 592908/full#supplementary-material Supplementary Figure 3 | RMSD and number of Hydrogen bonds. For every receptor, the RMSD and Hydrogen bonds number for each ligand were demonstrated. Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.
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