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Ivermectin contributes to attenuating the severity of acute lung injury in mice

Ma et al., Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113706
Nov 2022  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 23 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19ivm.org
Animal study showing dose dependent inhibition of lung injury with ivermectin. In lipopolysaccharide and bleomycin-induced mouse models of acute lung injury, treatment with ivermectin improved survival rates, body weight loss, lung injury scores, and other measures of disease severity. Ivermectin reduced inflammatory cell infiltration, pro-inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α and IL-6), and activity of the neutrophil enzyme myeloperoxidase in the lungs of ALI mice. Mechanistically, ivermectin appeared to inhibit activation of MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways involved in inflammation. Ivermectin may be beneficial treating acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome from COVID-19 or other causes.
68 preclinical studies support the efficacy of ivermectin for COVID-19:
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N766, Dengue32,67,68, HIV-168, Simian virus 4069, Zika32,70,71, West Nile71, Yellow Fever72,73, Japanese encephalitis72, Chikungunya73, Semliki Forest virus73, Human papillomavirus52, Epstein-Barr52, BK Polyomavirus74, and Sindbis virus73.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins66,68,69,75, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing33, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination36,76, shows dose-dependent inhibition of wildtype and omicron variants31, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury56,61, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition32, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation5, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro49, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity24, may minimize viral myocarditis by inhibiting NF-κB/p65-mediated inflammation in macrophages55, may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation77, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 by disrupting CD147 interaction78-81, shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-1954,82, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage4, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage35,43, increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system83, has immunomodulatory46 and anti-inflammatory65,84 properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile85.
Ma et al., 30 Nov 2022, China, peer-reviewed, 11 authors. Contact: jpwangchina@henu.edu.cn.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Ivermectin contributes to attenuating the severity of acute lung injury in mice
Yuanqiao Ma, Xiaoxiao Xu, Hang Wu, Changbo Li, Peijie Zhong, Zejin Liu, Chuang Ma, Wenhua Liu, Chenyu Wang, Yijie Zhang, Junpeng Wang
Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113706
Ivermectin has been proposed as a potential anti-inflammatory drug in addition to its antiparasitic activity. Here we investigated the potential role of ivermectin in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury (ALI) using the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-or bleomycin (BLM)-induced mice models. Male C57BL/6 mice were given ivermectin orally every day for the remainder of the experiment at doses of 1 or 2 mg/kg after 24 h of LPS or BLM treatment. Ivermectin reversed severe lung injury caused by LPS or BLM challenge, including mortality, changes in diffuse ground-glass and consolidation shadows on lung CT imaging, lung histopathological scores, lung wet/dry ratio, and protein content in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Furthermore, ivermectin also reduced total lung BALF inflammatory cells, infiltrating neutrophils, myeloperoxidase activity, and plasma TNF-α and IL-6 levels in mice treated with LPS or BLM. Finally, the mechanism study showed that LPS or BLM administration increased JNK, Erk1/2, and p38 MAPK phosphorylation while decreasing IκBα expression, an inhibitor of NF-κB. However, ivermectin increased IκBα expression but blocked elevated phosphorylated JNK and p38 MAPK, not Erk1/2, in both ALI mice. These findings suggested that ivermectin may alleviate ALI caused by LPS or BLM in mice, partly via lowering the inflammatory response, which is mediated at least by the inhibition of MAPK and NF-κB signaling. Collectively, ivermectin might be used to treat acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome.
Conflict of interest statement The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. Appendix A. Supporting information Supplementary data associated with this article can be found in the online version at doi:10.1016/j.biopha.2022.113706.
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