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Ivermectin and COVID-19: A report in Antiviral Research, widespread interest, an FDA warning, two letters to the editor and the authors' responses

Bray et al., Antiviral Res., doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104805
Apr 2020  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19ivm.org
Responses to Caly et al., and the author's reply. The original authors note that "ivermectin's key direct target in mammalian cells is a not a viral component, but a host protein important in intracellular transport; the fact that it is a host-directed agent (HDA) is almost certainly the basis of its broad-spectrum activity against a number of different RNA viruses in vitro. The way a HDA can reduce viral load is by inhibiting a key cellular process that the virus hijacks to enhance infection by suppressing the host antiviral response. Reducing viral load by even a modest amount by using a HDA at low dose early in infection can be the key to enabling the body's immune system to begin to mount the full antiviral response before the infection takes control."
Reviews covering ivermectin for COVID-19 include1-38.
Bray et al., 21 Apr 2020, preprint, 5 authors.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Antiviral Research, Craig R Rayner, Karen Yeo, David Wesche, Lisa Almond, Michael Dodds, Patrick F Smith, Mark Sullivan
Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre -including this research content -immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.
References
Baraka, Ivermectin distribution in the plasma and tissues of patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus, Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol
Caly, Druce, Catton, Jans, Wagstaff, The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, Antivir. Res, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787
Caly, The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, Antivir. Res, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787
Crump, Omura, Ivermectin, 'wonder drug' from Japan: the human use perspective, Proc. Jpn. Acad. Ser. B Phys. Biol. Sci
Guzzo, Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ivermectin in healthy adult subjects, J. Clin. Pharmacol
Jans, Kylie, Caly, Druce, Catton et al., The FDA-approved Drug Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, Antiviral Res
Merck, None, Mectizan NDA
Merck, Stromectol USPI
Navarro, Camprubí, Requena-Méndez, Buonfrate, Giorli et al., Safety of high-dose ivermectin: a systematic review and meta-analysis, J. Antimicrob. Chemother
Noël, Lima, Pharmacological aspects and clues for the rationale use of Chloroquine/Hydroxychloroquine facing the therapeutic challenges of COVID-19 pandemic, Lat. Am. J. Clin. Sci. Med. Technol
Pimenta, Silva, Noël, Ivermectin is a nonselective inhibitor of mammalian P-type ATPases, Naunyn-Schmied Arch. Pharmacol
Smit, Ochomo, Waterhouse, Kwambai, Abong'o et al., Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of high dose ivermectin with Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on mosquitocidal activity and QT-prolongation (IVERMAL), Clin. Pharmacol. Ther
Smit, Pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of high-dose ivermectin with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine on mosquitocidal activity and QT-prolongation (IVERMAL), Clin. Pharmacol. Ther
Tay, Fraser, Chan, Moreland, Rathore et al., Nuclear localization of dengue virus (DENV) 1-4 non-structural protein 5; protection against all 4 DENV serotypes by the inhibitor Ivermectin, Antivir. Res, doi:10.1016/j.2013Sep
Yang, Atkinson, Wang, Lee, Bogoyevitch et al., The broad spectrum antiviral ivermectin targets the host nuclear transport importin α/β1 heterodimer
Yao, In vitro antiviral activity and projection of optimized dosing design of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Clin. Infect. Dis
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