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Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents

Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x
Jan 2021  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
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Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin mediated through the blocking of α/β1 importin has been previously established, this analysis suggests an additional antiviral mechanism of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2 via inhibitory effects on 3CLpro.
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N7 Götz, Dengue Jitobaom, Tay, Wagstaff, HIV-1 Wagstaff, Simian virus 40 Wagstaff (B), Zika Barrows, Jitobaom, Yang, West Nile Yang, Yellow Fever Mastrangelo, Varghese, Japanese encephalitis Mastrangelo, Chikungunya Varghese, Semliki Forest virus Varghese, Human papillomavirus Li, Epstein-Barr Li, BK Polyomavirus Bennett, and Sindbis virus Varghese.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins Götz, Kosyna, Wagstaff, Wagstaff (B), inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Mody, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing Fauquet, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination Boschi, Scheim, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury Abd-Elmawla, Ma, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition Jitobaom, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation Vottero, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity Parvez (B), may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation Liu (C), shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-19 DiNicolantonio, Zhang, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage Zhao, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage Liu, Liu (B), increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system Hazan, has immunomodulatory Munson and anti-inflammatory DiNicolantonio (B), Yan properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile Descotes.
Mody et al., 20 Jan 2021, peer-reviewed, 9 authors.
In Vitro studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
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Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Vicky Mody, Joanna Ho, Savannah Wills, Ahmed Mawri, Latasha Lawson, Maximilian C C J C Ebert, Guillaume M Fortin, Srujana Rayalam, Shashidharamurthy Taval
Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x
Emerging outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is a major threat to public health. The morbidity is increasing due to lack of SARS-CoV-2 specific drugs. Herein, we have identified potential drugs that target the 3chymotrypsin like protease (3CLpro), the main protease that is pivotal for the replication of SARS-CoV-2. Computational molecular modeling was used to screen 3987 FDA approved drugs, and 47 drugs were selected to study their inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme in vitro. Our results indicate that boceprevir, ombitasvir, paritaprevir, tipranavir, ivermectin, and micafungin exhibited inhibitory effect towards 3CLpro enzymatic activity. The 100 ns molecular dynamics simulation studies showed that ivermectin may require homodimeric form of 3CLpro enzyme for its inhibitory activity. In summary, these molecules could be useful to develop highly specific therapeutically viable drugs to inhibit the SARS-CoV-2 replication either alone or in combination with drugs specific for other SARS-CoV-2 viral targets.
Supplementary Data 1 provides the data set for Figs. 2-5 , and Supplementary Figure 2 and 3 . Supplementary Data 2 and 3 provides data set for 3CLpro-OTDs docking study and Supplementary Data 4 for PIs and VNIs (S score for Table 1 and structural analysis for Fig. 6 ). Supplementary Data 5 provides data set for MD simulation study of 3CLPro homodimer with ivermectin, Supplementary Data 6 for 3CLPro monomer with ivermectin and Supplementary Data 7 for 3CLPro monomer with micafungin (Fig. 7 ). Supplementary Data 5-7 provides data set for Supplementary Fig. 3 (S score comparison from MD simulation study). Any remaining information can be obtained from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Author contributions V.M. and S.T. designed, performed and wrote the manuscript, S.R. performed the experiment and proofread the manuscript. M.E. performed MD simulation studies. G.M.F. helped with molecular docking studies. J.H., S.W., A.M., and L.L. collected the data on drugs. All authors reviewed the manuscript. Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Additional information Supplementary information is available for this paper at Correspondence and requests for materials should be addressed to S.T. Reprints and permission information is available at Publisher's note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and..
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