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Ivermectin for COVID-19
93 studies from 1,014 scientists
134,223 patients in 27 countries
Statistically significant improvement for mortality, ventilation, ICU, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance.
83%, 62%, 43% improvement for prophylaxis, early, and late treatment CI [74-89%], [51-70%], [28-55%]
53% improvement in 43 RCTs CI [38-65%]
51% lower mortality from 48 studies CI [37-62%]
COVID-19 Ivermectin studies. Dec 2022. c19ivm.org
0 0.5 1 1.5+ All studies 62% With exclusions 68% Mortality 51% Hospitalization 34% Recovery 45% Cases 78% Viral clearance 45% RCTs 53% Prophylaxis 83% Early 62% Late 43% Favorsivermectin Favorscontrol
188 ivermectin COVID-19 studies, 139 peer reviewed, 93 comparing treatment and control groups. Recent:
de la Rocha
Boschi
De Forni
Ochoa-Jaramillo
PRINCIPLE
Marinos
Aref.
ACTIV-6  TOGETHER  PRINCIPLE  COVID-OUT. Ivermectin was adopted for early treatment in all or part of 22 countries (39 including non-government medical organizations). Submit updates/corrections.
Nov 28
Boschi et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.11.24.517882 (Preprint) (In Vitro) SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Induces Hemagglutination: Implications for COVID-19 Morbidities and Therapeutics and for Vaccine Adverse Effects
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin blocked hemagglutination (clumping of red blood cells) when added to red blood cells prior to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, and reversed hemagglutination when added afterwards. Spike protein from four li..
Nov 10
De Forni et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0276751 (In Vitro) Synergistic drug combinations designed to fully suppress SARS-CoV-2 in the lung of COVID-19 patients
Vero E6 In Vitro study showing ivermectin and remdesivir to be highly synergistic with 6-13 times lower concentration required for 100% inhibition.
Oct 27
Covid Analysis (Preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin for COVID-19: real-time meta analysis of 93 studies (ivmmeta)
Statistically significant improvements are seen for mortality, ventilation, ICU admission, hospitalization, recovery, cases, and viral clearance. All remain significant after exclusions. 58 studies from 52 independent teams in 22 differ..
Oct 21
Naggie et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2022.18590 (News) Effect of Ivermectin vs Placebo on Time to Sustained Recovery in Outpatients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
The ACTIV-6 trial can be found under the original release date [Naggie].
Oct 21
Ochoa-Jaramillo et al., Revista Infectio Clinical efficacy and safety of ivermectin (400 μg/kg, single dose) in patients with severe COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
57% lower mortality [p=0.35], 34% higher ventilation [p=0.62], and 37% higher ICU admission [p=0.52]. RCT 75 very late stage patients in Colombia, showing no significant difference in outcomes with a single dose of 400μg/kg ivermectin.
Oct 10
PRINCIPLE (Preprint) PRINCIPLE Trial Ivermectin arm: unexplained delay and extension
Critical issues, mid-trial changes, unexplained supply problem, and delay in the ivermectin arm of the PRINCIPLE trial. Molnupiravir Ivermectin Trial PANORAMIC PRINCIPLE Chief investigator Prof. Chris Butler Prof. Chris Butler Randomization delay Median 2 days, ≤5 days from onset ≤14 days from onset (median unknown) Population 50+ or 18+ w/comorbidities 18..
Sep 27
Marinos, A., Do Your Own Research (Preprint) (meta analysis) Did Use Of Ivermectin In Latin America Sabotage Clinical Trials and Confuse The World Of Medicine?
Meta analysis of ivermectin trials showing community use of ivermectin in Latin America associated with lower observed efficacy in trials, consistent with the side effect profiles, Google Trends analysis, and investigator statements. Auth..
Sep 26
Kowa Press Release (News) 興和/新型コロナウイルス感染症患者を対象とした「K-237」(イベルメクチン)の第Ⅲ相臨床試験結果に関するお知らせ
Kowa reports no significant differences in their trial, with no mortality, almost no severe cases, and recovery within ~4 days, leaving minimal room for statistically significant improvement.
Sep 19
Aref et al., Infection and Drug Resistance, doi:10.2147/IDR.S381715 Possible Role of Ivermectin Mucoadhesive Nanosuspension Nasal Spray in Recovery of Post-COVID-19 Anosmia
74% faster recovery [p=0.0005]. 96 patient RCT showing faster resolution of post-COVID anosmia with an ivermectin nanosuspension nasal spray.
Sep 16
Kory, P., Pierre Kory’s Medical Musings (Review) (Preprint) The Criminal Censorship of Ivermectin's Efficacy By The High-Impact Medical Journals - Part 1
Review of censorship and negative publication bias for ivermectin research.
Sep 15
Uematsu et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-2012940/v1 (Preprint) Prophylactic Effect of Ivermectin on SARS-CoV-2 Induced Disease in a Syrian Hamster Model
Hamster study showing that prophylactic ivermectin inhibited COVID-19 weight loss, reduced lung viral titer by a factor of 10, inhibited pulmonary inflammatory cytokine expression, and reduced the severity of pathological changes with a s..
Sep 1
Akhtar et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2022.29.09.6634 Does ivermectin reduce COVID-19 mortality and progression of disease severity? – A retrospective study
90% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 72% lower ICU admission [p=0.0006], 80% higher hospital discharge [p<0.0001], and 59% faster viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 423 patients in Pakistan, 216 receiving 6 day treatment, showing lower mortality, lower ICU admission, and faster viral clearance with treatment. Limited baseline information per group is provided. There were more severe pat..
Aug 31
Qadeer et al., Pakistan Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.53350/pjmhs2216824 Ivermectin A Potential Treatment In Covid-19, Related to Critical Illness
58% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Prospective convenience sampling study of 210 hospitalized age-matched COVID-19 patients, showing faster viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline information per group is not provided.
Aug 18
Bramante et al., NEJM, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2201662 Randomized Trial of Metformin, Ivermectin, and Fluvoxamine for Covid-19
COVID-OUT remote RCT, showing no significant differences compared to a combined metformin/placebo "control" group. Results for other treatments are listed separately - metformin , fluvoxamine . Authors include metformin patients in the co..
Aug 12
Kory, P., Pierre Kory’s Medical Musings (Review) (Preprint) The Miracle Not-Heard Around The World: The Success of Uttar Pradesh
Detailed review of Uttar Pradesh's use of ivermectin, the dramatically better results compared to states declining ivermectin, and the censorship of ivermectin use. If Uttar Pradesh was a country, it would be the 6th largest in the world.
Aug 10
Chellasamy et al., Journal of King Saud University - Science, doi:10.1016/j.jksus.2022.102277 Docking and molecular dynamics studies of human ezrin protein with a modelled SARS-CoV-2 endodomain and their interaction with potential invasion inhibitors
In Silico study of SARS-CoV-1&2 endodomains and ezrin docking, identifying ivermectin, quercetin, calcifediol, calcitriol, selamectin, and minocycline as potential therapeutic drugs with strong ezrin binding which may restrict viral endod..
Aug 10
Al-kuraishy et al., Current Drug Targets, doi:10.2174/1389450123666220810102406 (Review) Central effects of Ivermectin in alleviation of Covid-19-induced dysautonomia
Review of the potential benefits of ivermectin for mitigating SARS-CoV-2 infection-induced dysautonomia.
Jul 19
Schilling et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.07.15.22277570 (Preprint) Pharmacometric assessment of the in-vivo antiviral activity of ivermectin in early symptomatic COVID-19
86% lower progression [p=0.24] and 9% worse viral clearance [p=0.36]. Very high conflict of interest RCT with design optimized for a null result: very low risk patients, high existing immunity, post-hoc change to exclude patients more likely to benefit. There was no significant difference in viral clearance..
Jul 11
Hazan, S., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2022.952321 (Theory) Microbiome-Based Hypothesis on Ivermectin’s Mechanism in COVID-19: Ivermectin Feeds Bifidobacteria to Boost Immunity
Hypothesis for an additional mechanism of action for ivermectin: inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines due to enhanced replication of Bifidobacterium.
Jun 29
Nimitvilai et al., Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, doi:10.4103/jgid.jgid_281_21 A randomized controlled trial of combined ivermectin and zinc sulfate versus combined hydroxychloroquine, darunavir/ritonavir, and zinc sulfate among adult patients with asymptomatic or mild coronavirus-19 infection
33% improved viral clearance [p=0.12]. RCT low-risk patients in Thailand comparing HCQ, darunavir/ritonavir, and zinc, with ivermectin and zinc, showing no significant differences. All patients recovered. 65% of patients were asymptomatic at baseline, 26% were PCR- at baseline..
Jun 23
Mirahmadizadeh et al., Respirology, doi:10.1111/resp.14318 Efficacy of single‐dose and double‐dose ivermectin early treatment in preventing progression to hospitalization in mild COVID ‐19: A multi‐arm, parallel‐group randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled trial
67% lower ventilation [p=0.37], 46% lower hospitalization [p=0.22], and 39% improved recovery [p=0.27]. RCT with 131 24mg ivermectin, 130 12mg ivermectin, and 130 placebo patients, showing no significant differences in outcomes. Lower ventilation and hospitalization was seen with treatment, in a dose-dependent manner, but not reaching stati..
Jun 21
Popp et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub3 (Preprint) Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
Highly biased meta analysis. Authors originally wrote a highly biased meta analysis that avoided statistical significance on individual outcomes with extreme exclusions [Popp], although efficacy was still seen when looking across all outc..
Jun 18
Jitobaom et al., BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology, doi:10.1186/s40360-022-00580-8 (date from earlier preprint) (In Vitro) Synergistic anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity of repurposed anti-parasitic drug combinations
In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of combinations of ivermectin, niclosamide, and chloroquine, with >10x reduction in IC50 compared to individual drugs.
Jun 16
Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708 Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
9% higher ICU admission [p=0.95], 36% higher hospitalization [p=0.41], 2% worse recovery [p=0.49], and 23% worse viral clearance [p=0.16]. RCT 549 low risk outpatients in Iran. Reported outcomes are very different from the pre-specified outcomes [irct.ir]. The inpatient trial is listed separately. The pre-specified primary clinical outcome was not reported. The reported comp..
Jun 16
Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708 Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
31% lower mortality [p=0.36], 50% lower ventilation [p=0.07], 16% lower ICU admission [p=0.47], and 11% longer hospitalization [p=0.009]. RCT 609 inpatients in Iran. Reported outcomes are very different from the pre-specified outcomes [irct.ir]. The outpatient trial is listed separately. From the pre-specified outcomes, all are either positive or not reported. Pre-specified..
Jun 14
Williams, T., Do Your Own Research (Preprint) (In Vitro) Not All Ivermectin Is Created Equal: Comparing The Quality of 11 Different Ivermectin Sources
In Vitro analysis of ivermectin from 11 different sources showing highly variable antiparasitic efficacy. Multiple sources and brands were more effective than the US mass produced Edenbridge brand.
Jun 12
Naggie et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2022.18590 Effect of Ivermectin vs Placebo on Time to Sustained Recovery in Outpatients With Mild to Moderate COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
5% higher hospitalization [p=1], 68% lower progression [p=0.36], and 24% improved recovery [p=0.07]. RCT low-risk outpatients with very late treatment (median 6 days, 25% ≥8 days) in the USA, showing 98% probability of efficacy for clinical progression at day 14, a treatment delay-response relationship, and significant efficacy for patie..
Jun 12
Angkasekwinai et al., Antibiotics, doi:10.3390/antibiotics11060796 Safety and Efficacy of Ivermectin for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
Low-risk RCT in Thailand with zero mortality, reporting no significant differences with the addition of ivermectin to favipiravir treatment, however the study as reported does not make sense as detailed below. All participants were suspec..
May 27
George et al., Indian Journal of Hematology and Blood Transfusion, doi:10.1007/s12288-022-01546-w Single Dose of Ivermectin is not Useful in Patients with Hematological Disorders and COVID-19 Illness: A Phase II B Open Labelled Randomized Controlled Trial
30% lower mortality [p=0.55], 19% faster recovery [p=0.37], 33% lower progression [p=0.41], and 33% worse viral clearance [p=0.5]. RCT with 35 single dose 24mg, 38 single dose 12mg, and 39 SOC hospitalized patients with hematological illnesses in India, showing no significant differences. Results were better for 24mg vs. 12mg for all symptomatic outcomes. Viral clear..
May 27
Schwartz, E., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2022.100989 (Review) Does ivermectin have a place in the treatment of mild Covid-19?
Discussion of ivermectin research compared to paxlovid and molnupiravir. Author includes a meta analysis of low-risk-of-bias studies showing significantly lower hospitalization for outpatient treatment with ivermectin. This efficacy is se..
May 23
de la Rocha et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-022-07890-6 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin compared with placebo in the clinical course in Mexican patients with asymptomatic and mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial
15% worse recovery [p=0.58] and 2% improved viral clearance [p=0.64]. Small low-risk patient RCT with 30 low-dose ivermectin and 26 control patients, with no primary outcome events in either arm. Viral load was significantly better with ivermectin on day 5, while there was no significant difference on day 1..
May 20
Valerio Pascua et al., Epidemiology International Journal, doi:10.23880/eij-16000234 Repurposing Drugs for Covid-19 by a Developing Country
Review of a multiphasic multidrug early treatment protocol for COVID-19 in Honduras, showing one death from 415 patients, which was for a patient not receiving early treatment (presenting on the 5th day in need of hospitalization and supp..
May 20
Silva et al., Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.899702 Clinical-Epidemiology Aspect of Inpatients With Moderate or Severe COVID-19 in a Brazilian Macroregion: Disease and Countermeasures
32% lower mortality [p=0.57]. Retrospective 395 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing mortality HR 0.59 for antiparasitic use, however there were only 8 patients treated and authors do not distinguish between albendazole and ivermectin.
May 14
Alvarado et al., Computational Biology and Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2022.107692 Interaction of the New Inhibitor Paxlovid (PF-07321332) and Ivermectin With the Monomer of the Main Protease SARS-CoV-2: A Volumetric Study Based on Molecular Dynamics, Elastic Networks, Classical Thermodynamics and SPT
In Silico study comparing ivermectin and paxlovid Mpro interaction, showing similar interaction for paxlovid and the ivermectin B1a homologue, a different mechanism for ivermectin B1b, and interaction at different sites for paxlovid.
May 8
Croci et al., International Journal of Biomaterials, doi:10.1155/2016/8043983 (In Vitro) Liposomal Systems as Nanocarriers for the Antiviral Agent Ivermectin
In Vitro study of liposomal formulations of ivermectin showing up to 5 times lower cytotoxicity and increased antiviral activity in Dengue strains.
Apr 27
Babalola et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1576399/v1 (Preprint) Ivermectin is associated with increase in SPO2 in hypoxemic SARS-CoV-2 patients: pharmacodynamic profile and correlates
Extended analysis of [Thairu], showing significantly faster and greater improvement in SpO2 with ivermectin treatment.
Apr 13
Marinos, A. (Review) (Preprint) The Problem With The TOGETHER Trial
Analysis of serious problems with the Together Trial. Also see [Marinos].
May 31
Zheng et al., International Journal of Pharmaceutics, doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121719 Red blood cell-hitchhiking mediated pulmonary delivery of ivermectin: Effects of nanoparticle properties
In Vitro and mouse study proposing a method for improving ivermectin pharmacokinetics and bioavailability using delivery via red blood cells.
Apr 6
Ravikirti et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1522422/v1 (Preprint) Association between Ivermectin treatment and mortality in Covid-19: A hospital-based case-control study
3% lower mortality [p=0.82]. Retrospective 965 late stage (44% severe, 27% ICU) hospitalized patients in India, showing no significant difference with ivermectin treatment. Overall mortality was very high, suggesting very late treatment. The low non-weight-adjusted d..
Apr 2
Delandre et al., Pharmaceuticals, doi:10.3390/ph15040445 (In Vitro) Antiviral Activity of Repurposing Ivermectin against a Panel of 30 Clinical SARS-CoV-2 Strains Belonging to 14 Variants
In Vitro study with 30 COVID-19 strains from 14 variants, showing stronger efficacy with ivermectin compared to CQ and remdesivir, and relatively homogeneous efficacy with ivermectin regardless of strain/variant, in contrast to results fo..
Mar 25
Aminpour et al., Computation, doi:10.3390/computation10040051 In Silico Analysis of the Multi-Targeted Mode of Action of Ivermectin and Related Compounds
In Silico analysis identifying strong or moderate affinity bindings for ivermectin to multiple sites on the spike protein, CD147 and α7nAChr, which may provide effective competitive binding for all variants of SARS-CoV-2. Ivermectin had t..
Mar 21
Bitterman et al., JAMA Network Open, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.3079 Comparison of Trials Using Ivermectin for COVID-19 Between Regions With High and Low Prevalence of Strongyloidiasis
Analysis of a small subset of 12 ivermectin trials showing a relationship with efficacy and strongyloides prevalence. This analysis is confounded by treatment delay, dose, conflicts of interest, and other factors, and the effect disappear..
Mar 18
Albariqi et al., International Journal of Pharmaceutics, doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2022.121688 Pharmacokinetics and Safety of Inhaled Ivermectin in Mice as a Potential COVID-19 Treatment
Mouse study of an inhaled ivermectin formulation, showing high concentrations in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, exceeding the required concentration for efficacy based on in vitro studies.
Mar 11
Albariqi et al., Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery, doi:10.1089/jamp.2021.0059 (Dosing) Preparation and Characterization of Inhalable Ivermectin Powders as a Potential COVID-19 Therapy
Creation and analysis of an inhalable dry powder formulation of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Mar 7
Harper, P. (News) Professor tied to altered Andrew Hill paper also prepared 'Ivermectin Evidence' for World Health Organisation
Forensic analysis of the Hill meta analysis discovering an unlisted author potentially connected to changes and also related to the WHO ivermectin analysis. Author notes that "the person who allegedly edited the Andrew Hill paper ..
Mar 4
Lawrie, T. (News) A Letter to Dr. Andrew Hill
Documentary about the external forces changing the conclusions of the Hill et al. meta analysis, and the subsequent negative impact around the world.
Mar 2
Soto et al., PLOS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0264789 Mortality and associated risk factors in patients hospitalized due to COVID-19 in a Peruvian reference hospital
41% higher mortality [p=0.001]. Retrospective 1,418 very late stage (46% mortality) patients in Peru, showing higher mortality with ivermectin. There is strong confounding by indication, for example 48% of patients with baseline SpO2 <70% were treated compared with 22% ..
Feb 28
Efimenko et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.12.096 Treatment with Ivermectin Is Associated with Decreased Mortality in COVID-19 Patients: Analysis of a National Federated Database
69% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. PSM retrospective 41,608 patients in the USA, 1,072 treated with ivermectin and 40,536 treated with remdesivir, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment. This study was presented at a conference (IMED 2021). Submissions were peer..
Feb 25
Thairu et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36328 (date from earlier preprint) A Comparison of Ivermectin and Non Ivermectin Based Regimen for COVID-19 in Abuja: Effects on Virus Clearance, Days-to-discharge and Mortality
88% lower mortality [p=0.12], 55% higher hospital discharge [p=0.0001], and 95% improved viral clearance [p=0.001]. PSM retrospective 87 patients in Nigeria, 61 treated with ivermectin, showing lower mortality, faster recovery, and faster viral clearance with ivermectin treatment. All patients received zinc and vitamin C. A synergistic effect was seen ..
Feb 18
Lim et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189 (data 11/3/21) (News) Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities: The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial
The I-TECH RCT can be found at [c19ivermectin.com]. Studies are listed under the date they first became available (November 3, 2021 for this study).
Feb 6
Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.28624 (date from earlier preprint) Regular Use of Ivermectin as Prophylaxis for COVID-19 Led Up to a 92% Reduction in COVID-19 Mortality Rate in a Dose-Response Manner: Results of a Prospective Observational Study of a Strictly Controlled Population of 88,012 Subjects
92% lower mortality [p=0.0008]. PSM multivariable analysis of the Itajaí trial showing significantly lower mortality with regular use of ivermectin prophylaxis. Immortal time bias may significantly affect these results.
Feb 2
Manomaipiboon et al., Trials, doi:10.1186/s13063-022-06649-3 (date from earlier preprint) Efficacy and safety of ivermectin in the treatment of mild-to-moderate COVID-19 infection: A randomized, double blind, placebo, controlled trial
43% improved recovery [p=0.26] and 5% improved viral clearance [p=1]. Small RCT with 72 low-risk patients in Thailand, showing improved recovery with ivermectin, without statistical significance. All patients recovered and there was no escalation of care in either group. There were no adverse events.
Jan 31
Kowa News Release (News) (In Vitro) Antiviral effect of ivermectin confirmed for omicron
Kowa reports that ivermectin is effective for omicron in In Vitro research.
Jan 24
de Jesús Ascencio-Montiel et al., Archives of Medical Research, doi:10.1016/j.arcmed.2022.01.002 A Multimodal Strategy to Reduce the Risk of Hospitalization/death in Ambulatory Patients with COVID-19
59% lower combined mortality/hospitalization [p<0.0001], 15% lower mortality [p=0.16], 9% lower ventilation [p=0.51], and 48% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 28,048 COVID+ patients in Mexico, 7,898 receiving a treatment kit including low dose ivermectin, AZ, aspirin, and acetaminophen, shower lower mortality/hospitalization for those receiving the kit. Delivery of the treatment k..
Jan 23
Liu et al., bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2022.01.20.477147 (Preprint) (In Vitro) SARS-CoV-2 Viral Genes Compromise Survival and Functions of Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Cardiomyocytes via Reducing Cellular ATP Level
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin and meclizine may be protective for heart muscle damage due to SARS-CoV-2.
Jan 20
Parvez et al., Immunity, Inflammation and Disease, doi:10.1002/iid3.639 (date from earlier preprint) (Preprint) Insights from a computational analysis of the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant: Host–pathogen interaction, pathogenicity, and possible drug therapeutics
In Silico analysis of the omicron variant and 10 treatments reported effective for previous variants, predicting that all will be effective for omicron, with ivermectin showing the best results.
Jan 18
Zubair et al., Monaldi Archives for Chest Disease, doi:10.4081/monaldi.2022.2062 The effect of ivermectin on non-severe and severe COVID-19 disease and gender-based difference of its effectiveness
9% higher mortality [p=1] and 8% longer hospitalization [p=0.4]. Retrospective 188 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, 90 treated with ivermectin, showing no significant differences with treatment. The ivermectin group had more severe disease (66% vs 58%, with 6x higher risk for severe disease patients)..
Jan 13
Tyson et al., Preprint (Preprint) Low Rates of Hospitalization and Death in 4,376 COVID-19 Patients Given Early Ambulatory Medical and Supportive Care. A Case Series and Observational Study.
100% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 100% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 4,376 patients with mild/moderate COVID-19 in the USA treated with multiple medications including HCQ/ivermectin, favipiravir, vitamin C, D, quercetin, zinc, mAbs, budesonide, dexamethasone, prednisone, and colchicine (exact..
Dec 31
2021
Abbas et al., Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.36468/pharmaceutical-sciences.spl.416 The Effect of Ivermectin on Reducing Viral Symptoms in Patients with Mild COVID-19
41% lower progression [p=0.54] and 36% improved recovery [p=0.04]. RCT 99 ivermectin and 103 control low risk patients in China, up to 7 days from symptom onset, showing statistically significant improvement in recovery with treatment, and non-statistically significant improvements in recovery time and..
Dec 31
2021
Kerr et al., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.26793.52327 (Preprint) COVID-19 In-Hospital Mortality Rate is Reduced by Prophylactic Use of Ivermectin: Findings From a City-Wide, Prospective Observational Study Using Propensity Score Matching (PSM)
45% lower mortality [p=0.05]. PSM retrospective 378 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing lower mortality for patients that were on ivermectin prophylaxis before admission (not taking into account the lower risk of being hospitalized shown in the related larger stu..
Dec 31
2021
Shimizu et al., Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.12.024 Ivermectin administration is associated with lower gastrointestinal complications and greater ventilator-free days in ventilated patients with COVID-19: A propensity score analysis
100% lower mortality [p=0.001], 48% lower ventilation [p=0.03], 43% lower ICU admission [p=0.06], and 78% lower progression [p=0.03]. Retrospective 88 ventilated COVID-19 patients in Japan, 39 treated with ivermectin within 3 days of admission, showing significantly reduced incidence of GI complications and mortality, and increased ventilator-free days with treatment.
Dec 30
2021
Semiz, S., Biomolecular Concepts, doi:10.1515/bmc-2021-0017 (Review) SIT1 transporter as a potential novel target in treatment of COVID-19
Review of the potential connections between SLC6A20/SIT1, ACE2, Type 2 Diabetes, and COVID-19 severity. This provides another potential mechanism of action for ivermectin as a partial agonist of glycine-gated chloride channels, interferin..
Dec 29
2021
Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101 Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan
64% lower mortality [p=0.09]. Retrospective 444 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results, not reaching statistical significance. Ivermectin was mostly used with patients in severe condition. Dose ranged..
Dec 28
2021
Baguma et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-1193578/v1 (Preprint) Characteristics of the COVID-19 patients treated at Gulu Regional Referral Hospital, Northern Uganda: A cross-sectional study
97% lower mortality [p=0.31]. Retrospective COVID+ hospitalized patients in Uganda, showing no statistically significant difference in mortality with ivermectin, however there were only 7 patients receiving ivermectin.
Dec 21
2021
Zaidi et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, doi:10.1038/s41429-021-00491-6 (Review) The mechanisms of action of ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2—an extensive review
Extensive review of 20 mechanisms of action of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2.
Dec 13
2021
Jamir et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.20394 Determinants of Outcome Among Critically Ill Police Personnel With COVID-19: A Retrospective Observational Study From Andhra Pradesh, India
53% higher mortality [p=0.13]. Retrospective 266 COVID-19 ICU patients in India, showing significantly lower mortality with PVP-I oral gargling and topical nasal use, and non-statistically significant higher mortality with ivermectin and lower mortality with remdesivir.
Dec 11
2021
Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching
70% lower mortality [p<0.0001], 67% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001], and 44% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. PSM retrospective 220,517 patients in Brazil,133,051 taking ivermectin as part of a citywide prophylaxis program, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality with treatment. CAAE:47124221.2.0000.5485. Additional results are ..
Dec 4
2021
Wentzel et al., Open Forum Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/ofid/ofab466.728 Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Ivermectin Safety Profile in COVID-19 Trials
Systematic review and meta-analysis of safety in ivermectin COVID-19 trials, showing no significant difference in adverse events between treatment and control arms. Authors conclude that ivermectin is safe and well-tolerated.
Dec 1
2021
Behl et al., Science of The Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.152072 (Review) CD147-spike protein interaction in COVID-19: Get the ball rolling with a novel receptor and therapeutic target
Review of the cluster of differentiation 147 (CD147) transmembrane protein as an entry route for SARS-CoV-2, correlation with observed characteristics of COVID-19, and relevant potential therapeutics including azithromycin, melatonin, sta..
Nov 26
2021
Ferreira et al., Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira, doi:10.1590/1806-9282.20210661 Outcomes associated with Hydroxychloroquine and Ivermectin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19: a single-center experience
54% higher combined mortality/intubation [p=0.37]. Retrospective 230 hospitalized patients in Brazil showing no significant difference with ivermectin treatment. Authors note that the treatments were more likely to be offered to sicker patients. Authors indicate that they do not know when..
Nov 23
2021
Ozer et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27469 Effectiveness and Safety of Ivermectin in COVID‐19 Patients: A Prospective Study at A Safety‐Net Hospital
75% lower mortality [p=0.09], 13% lower ventilation [p=0.2], and 9% longer hospitalization [p=0.09]. Small prospective PSM study in the USA, showing 75% lower mortality with ivermectin treatment, without reaching statistical significance, significantly shorter ventilation and ICU time, and longer hospitalization time. Authors leave the s..
Nov 17
2021
Samajdar et al., Journal of the Association of Physicians India, 69:11 Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine for Chemo-Prophylaxis of COVID-19: A Questionnaire Survey of Perception and Prescribing Practice of Physicians vis-a-vis Outcomes
80% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Physician survey in India with 164 ivermectin prophylaxis, 129 HCQ prophylaxis, and 81 control patients, showing significantly lower COVID-19 cases with treatment. Details of the treatment and control groups and the definition of cases ar..
Nov 9
2021
Stone et al., Biologics, doi:10.3390/biologics2030015 (date from earlier preprint) Changes in SpO2 on Room Air for 34 Severe COVID-19 Patients after Ivermectin-Based Combination Treatment: 62% Normalization within 24 Hours
Retrospective severe COVID-19 patients in Zimbabwe treated with ivermectin, doxycycline, and zinc. For 34 with SpO2 tracking, there was rapid improvement in SpO2, with 55% recovery towards SpO2=97 within 12 hours. The preprint shows furth..
Nov 3
2021
Lim et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189 (data 11/3/21) Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities: The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial
69% lower mortality [p=0.09], 59% lower ventilation [p=0.17], 22% lower ICU admission [p=0.79], and 31% lower progression [p=0.29]. RCT 490 late stage (>65% lung change chest radiography at baseline) hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences. Mortality was 1.2% for ivermectin vs. 4% for control. If the same event rates continue, the trial w..
Oct 30
2021
Rezk et al., Zagazig University Medical Journal, doi:10.21608/zumj.2021.92746.2329 miRNA-223-3p, miRNA- 2909 and Cytokines Expression in COVID-19 Patients Treated with Ivermectin
56% lower progression [p=0.06], 33% improved recovery [p=0.27], and 27% faster viral clearance [p=0.01]. Prospective 320 hospitalized moderate COVID-19+ patients in Egypt, 160 treated with ivermectin, showing lower mortality, improved recovery, and decreased cytokine expression with treatment. All patients were treated with HCQ. 7890/26-8-20..
Oct 28
2021
Verma et al., Indian Journal of Community Health, 33:3 Assessing Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices towards Ivermectin Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Health Care Workers
Survey of 306 healthcare workers involved in the medication of COVID-19 patients in India. 71% indicated that ivermectin had a protective effect for COVID-19.
Oct 20
2021
Low et al., Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Basis of Disease, doi:10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166294 (Review) Repositioning Ivermectin for Covid-19 treatment: Molecular mechanisms of action against SARS-CoV-2 replication
Review of the antiviral characteristics of ivermectin and mechanisms of action. Authors note that ivermectin has proven effective for HIV-1, Adenovirus, flu, SARS-CoV, and more; due to genomic similarity between SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV, t..
Oct 19
2021
Borody et al., TrialSite News (Preprint) Combination Therapy For COVID-19 Based on Ivermectin in an Australian Population
92% lower mortality [p=0.03] and 93% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 600 PCR+ outpatients in Australia treated with ivermectin, zinc, and doxycycline, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization with treatment. This trial uses a synthetic control group, and the preliminary repor..
Oct 15
2021
Segatori et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13102084 (In Vitro) Effect of Ivermectin and Atorvastatin on Nuclear Localization of Importin Alpha and Drug Target Expression Profiling in Host Cells from Nasopharyngeal Swabs of SARS-CoV-2- Positive Patients
Gene expression analysis of nasopharyngeal swabs of COVID-19 positive and negative patients, and in vitro study supporting the use of ivermectin and atorvastatin for COVID-19, and the efficacy of ivermectin at clinically relevant dosages...
Oct 14
2021
Jitobaom et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-941811/v1 (Preprint) (In Vitro) Favipiravir and Ivermectin Showed in Vitro Synergistic Antiviral Activity against SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing a strong synergistic effect of ivermectin and favipiravir. Combining multiple antiviral drugs with different mechanisms of action helps to minimize drug resistance and toxicity. For ivermectin alone, IC50 for Calu-3..
Oct 14
2021
Goodkin, M. (News) Are Major Ivermectin Studies Designed for Failure?
Discussion of flaws in ivermectin trials creating a bias towards not finding an effect.
Oct 7
2021
Fordham et al., OSF Preprints, doi:10.31219/osf.io/mp4f2 (Review) (Preprint) The uses and abuses of systematic reviews
Analysis of defects in the Popp et al. meta analysis.
Oct 5
2021
Francés-Monerris et al., Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics, doi:10.1039/D1CP02967C Microscopic interactions between ivermectin and key human and viral proteins involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection
In Silico molecular dynamics study showing that ACE2 and ACE2/RBD aggregates form persistent interactions with ivermectin.
Oct 2
2021
TrialSite News (News) Committed to Medical Evidence, a Prominent Ivermectin Group is Eradicated from the Memories of Cyberspace
Report on Twitter's censorship of the British Ivermectin Recommendation Development group.
Oct 1
2021
Babalola et al., Journal of Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510233 (date from earlier preprint) A Randomized Controlled Trial of Ivermectin Monotherapy versus Hydroxychloroquine, Ivermectin, and Azithromycin Combination Therapy in COVID- 19 Patients in Nigeria
Small RCT with 61 patients in Nigeria, all patients treated with ivermectin, zinc, and vitamin C, showing no significant improvements in recovery with the addition of HCQ+AZ.
Sep 23
2021
Mayer et al., Frontiers in Public Health, doi:10.3389/fpubh.2022.813378 (date from earlier preprint) Safety and Efficacy of a MEURI Program for the Use of High Dose Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients
55% lower mortality [p<0.0001] and 66% lower ICU admission [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 21,232 patients in Argentina, 3,266 assigned to ivermectin treatment, showing lower mortality with treatment. Greater benefits were seen for patients >40, and a dose dependent response was found. For more discussion see [twi..
Sep 7
2021
Scheim, D., TrialsSite News (News) Merck’s deadly Vioxx playbook, redux: a debunked smear campaign against its competing drug—the FDA-approved, Nobel prize-honored ivermectin
Discussion of Merck's ivermectin statements and past actions related to Vioxx raising significant concerns.
Sep 6
2021
Buonfrate et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2021.106516 (date from earlier preprint) High dose ivermectin for the early treatment of COVID-19 (COVER study): a randomised, double-blind, multicentre, phase II, dose-finding, proof of concept trial
20% improved viral clearance [p=0.59]. Early terminated 89 patient RCT with 29 high dose and 32 very high dose ivermectin patients, showing dose dependent viral load reduction, although not reaching statistical significance due to early termination. Since most patients have lo..
Sep 3
2021
Okogbenin et al., Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal, doi:10.4103/npmj.npmj_532_21 Clinical characteristics, treatment modalities and outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 patients treated at thisday dome isolation and treatment centre, federal capital territory Abuja, Nigeria
Retrospective 300 COVID-19 patients in Nigeria treated with ivermectin, zinc, vitamin C, and azithromycin, reporting no deaths. Authors conclude that early treatment is critical.
Sep 2
2021
Marik et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001443 (meta analysis) Ivermectin, A Reanalysis of the Data
Updated meta analysis showing no significant change if Elgazzar et al. is excluded.
Sep 2
2021
Neil et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001450 (meta analysis) Bayesian Hypothesis Testing and Hierarchical Modeling of Ivermectin Effectiveness
Updated Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trials showing that there is strong evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin and COVID-19 severity and mortality, and that the result is robust in sensitivity analysis, inclu..
Aug 19
2021
González-Paz et al., Biophysical Chemistry, doi:10.1016/j.bpc.2021.106677 Comparative study of the interaction of ivermectin with proteins of interest associated with SARS-CoV-2: A computational and biophysical approach
In Silico analysis of the components of ivermectin (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b), suggesting different and complementary inhibitory activity of each component, with an affinity of avermectin-B1b for viral structures, and of avermect..
Aug 17
2021
González-Paz et al., Journal of Molecular Liquids, doi:10.1016/j.molliq.2021.117284 Structural Deformability Induced in Proteins of Potential Interest Associated with COVID-19 by binding of Homologues present in Ivermectin: Comparative Study Based in Elastic Networks Models
In Silico elastic network model analysis of ivermectin components (avermectin-B1a and avermectin-B1b) providing a biophysical and computational perspective of proposed multi-target activity of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Aug 16
2021
Kory, P., Substack (Review) (Preprint) Summary of the Evidence for Ivermectin in COVID-19
Summary of the evidence base for ivermectin and COVID-19 including in vitro and in silico studies, animal studies, pharmacologic studies, clinical observation and experience, observational controlled trials, randomized controlled trials, ..
Aug 12
2021
Elavarasi et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.08.10.21261855 (Preprint) Clinical features, demography and predictors of outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a tertiary care hospital in India - a cohort study
20% lower mortality [p=0.12]. Retrospective 2017 hospitalized patients in India, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results. No group details are provided and this result is subject to confounding by indication.
Aug 12
2021
Pedroso et al., The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.bjid.2021.101603 Self-prescribed Ivermectin use is associated with a lower rate of seroconversion in health care workers diagnosed with COVID, in a dose-dependent response
Retrospective 45 healthcare workes in Brazil, showing lower creation of antibodies with multiple doses of ivermectin, which may be expected due to the antiviral activity as demonstrated in multiple studies. Authors appear unaware of these..
Aug 10
2021
La Pampa, Argentina (News) La Pampa expondrá a la comunidad científica los resultados del Programa de Intervención Monitoreado de Ivermectina
27% lower mortality and 38% lower combined mortality/ICU admission. News report on the use of ivermectin in La Pampa, Argentina, showing lower mortality with treatment.
Aug 6
2021
Kow et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001441 (Review) Pitfalls in Reporting Sample Size Calculation Across Randomized Controlled Trials Involving Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19
Review of sample size calculations in ivermectin RCTs, showing that existing RCTs are very underpowered.
Aug 6
2021
Reis et al., New England Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2115869 (results released 8/6/2021) Effect of Early Treatment with Ivermectin among Patients with Covid-19
12% lower mortality [p=0.68], 23% lower ventilation [p=0.38], 17% lower hospitalization [p=0.19], and 10% fewer combined hospitalization/ER visits [p=0.42]. Many major issues including multiple impossible numbers, blinding failure, randomization failure, and many protocol violations , as detailed below. Submit Updates or Corrections Private comments: "There is a clear signal that IVM works in..
Aug 5
2021
Rana et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-755838/v1 (Preprint) A Computational Study of Ivermectin and Doxycycline Combination Drug Against SARS-CoV-2 Infection
In silico study showing strong binding affinity of ivermectin and doxycycline for SARS-CoV-2 main protease 3CLpro, and increased binding affinity for the combination of both.
Aug 3
2021
Santin et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100924 (Review) Ivermectin: a multifaceted drug of Nobel prize-honored distinction with indicated efficacy against a new global scourge, COVID-19
Review concluding that the evidence supports worldwide use of ivermectin for COVID-19, complementary to immunization. Authors note that it is likely non-epitope specific, possibly retaining efficacy with new viral strains. They note that ..
Jul 31
2021
Sathi et al., Journal of Cardiovascular Disease Research, doi:10.31838/jcdr.2021.12.05.11 Clinical Effect of the Combination Therapy of Hydroxychloroquine, Azithromycin and Ivermectin in Patients with COVID-19
Prospective study of 85 COVID-19 patients including 8 ICU patients treated with ivermectin, HCQ, and AZ, showing all patients improving except for one patient that died 3 days after admission. Authors recommend early treatment. There was ..
Jul 28
2021
Popp et al., Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2 (Preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19
This meta analysis is designed to exclude most studies. Authors select a small subset of studies, with a majority of results based on only 1 or 2 studies. Authors split up studies which dilutes the effects and results in a lack of statist..
Jul 25
2021
Ontai et al., Epidemiology International Journal, doi:10.23880/eij-16000217 Early multidrug treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) and decreased case fatality rates in Honduras
Report on the nationwide implementation of multi-drug COVID-19 inpatient and outpatient treatment protocols in Honduras, showing a case fatality rate decrease from 9.33% to 2.97%. No decrease was seen in Mexico, a similar Latin American c..
Jul 24
2021
World Ivermectin Day (News) World Ivermectin Day
Joint event by 22 worldwide organizations.
Jul 23
2021
Mansour et al., International Immunopharmacology, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2021.108004 Safety of inhaled ivermectin as a repurposed direct drug for treatment of COVID-19: A preclinical tolerance study
Safety analysis of an inhaled lyophilized ivermectin formulation, showing 127-fold increase in drug solubility, and identifying safe dosage levels in rats.
Jul 16
2021
FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group (News) Joint Statement of the FLCCC Alliance and British Ivermectin Recommendation Development Group on Retraction of Early Research on Ivermectin
News release noting that ivermectin remains effective after excluding Elgazzar et al. Given the large magnitude effects and 61 studies, excluding one study with ~3% of patients does not significantly change the evidence base.
Jul 12
2021
Neil et al., ResearchGate, doi:0.13140/RG.2.2.31800.88323 (Preprint) (meta analysis) Bayesian Meta Analysis of Ivermectin Effectiveness in Treating Covid-19 Disease
Bayesian analysis of a subset of ivermectin trial data concluding that there is overwhelming evidence to support a causal link between ivermectin, COVID-19 severity, and mortality.
Jul 8
2021
Muthusamy et al., Journal of Virology & Antiviral Research Virtual Screening Reveals Potential Anti-Parasitic Drugs Inhibiting the Receptor Binding Domain of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein
In Silico study identifying 32 anti-parisitic compounds effectively inhibiting the RBD of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, with ivermectin being one of the top compounds.
Jul 7
2021
Hazan et al., Future Microbiology, doi:10.2217/fmb-2022-0014 (date from earlier preprint) Effectiveness of ivermectin-based multidrug therapy in severely hypoxic, ambulatory COVID-19 patients
86% lower mortality [p=0.04] and 93% lower hospitalization [p=0.001]. Small study of 24 consecutive patients in serious condition (9 days post symptoms, mean SpO2 87.4) using combined treatment with ivermectin, doxycycline, zinc, vitamin D, and vitamin C, showing no mortality or hospitalization with treatme..
Jul 3
2021
Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction, re: Roman et al. (News) Open Letter, Statement of Concern and Request for Retraction
Open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws in the Roman et al. meta analysis, and requesting retraction.
Jul 2
2021
Adegboro et al., African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology, doi:10.4314/ajcem.v22i3.2 (Review) A review of the anti-viral effects of ivermectin
Review of the antiviral effects of ivermectin.
Jul 2
2021
Vallejos et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06348-5 Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 (IVERCOR-COVID19) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
33% lower hospitalization [p=0.23] and 5% worse viral clearance [p=0.55]. RCT with 501 relatively low-risk outpatients in Argentina showing hospitalization OR 0.65 [0.32-1.31]. With only 7% hospitalization, this trial is underpowered. The trial primarily includes low-risk patients that recover quickly without t..
Jun 30
2021
Turkia, M., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.16973.36326 (Review) (Preprint) A Continuation of a Timeline of Ivermectin-Related Events in the COVID-19 Pandemic [June 30, 2021]
An extension of the ivermectin timeline covering April - June 2021, including WHO's role and funding, Gavi, COVAX, Trusted News Initiative, International Fact-Checking Network, the role of private philantrophy, Frontiers, comparison to th..
Jun 28
2021
Roman et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1093/cid/ciab591 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
This is a severely flawed meta analysis. An open letter signed by 40 physicians detailing errors and flaws, and requesting retraction, can be found at [ trialsitenews.com ] . See also [ bird-group.org ] . Authors cherry-pick to include on..
Jun 25
2021
Jagiasi et al., The International Journal of Clinical Practice, doi:10.1111/ijcp.14574 (Review) Variation in therapeutic strategies for the management of severe COVID-19 in India- A nationwide cross-sectional survey
Survey of medication use for severe COVID-19 in India, showing 33% adoption of ivermectin as of January 2021.
Jun 22
2021
Misiones Ministry of Public Health (News) Results from ivermectin use from the Misiones Ministry of Public Health
News report on ivermectin use in Misiones, Argentina, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality, and a dose-dependent effect with improved results for those taking 0.6mg/kg.
Jun 18
2021
Lind et al., Journal of General Internal Medicine, doi:10.1007/s11606-021-06948-6 (Review) Increase in Outpatient Ivermectin Dispensing in the US During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Cross-Sectional Analysis
CDC analysis of ivermectin prescriptions in the US suggesting that, while national health authority recognition is delayed in that country, many physicians are aware of the efficacy demonstrated in clinical trials.
Jun 18
2021
Krolewiecki et al., EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959 Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: A proof-of-concept randomized trial
66% improved viral load [p=0.09]. Proof of concept RCT with 30 ivermectin patients and 15 control patients, showing a concentration dependent antiviral activity, but no significant difference in clinical outcomes. There was no significant difference in viral load reductio..
Jun 17
2021
Bryant et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402 (date from earlier preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin for Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19 Infection: A Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, and Trial Sequential Analysis to Inform Clinical Guidelines
62% lower mortality [p=0.005]. Systematic review, meta analysis, and trial sequential analysis of 24 RCTs finding mortality RR 0.38 [0.19-0.73]. An update notes potentially inaccurate data collection and/or reporting in some sources [journals.lww.com].
Jun 15
2021
Aref et al., International Journal of Nanomedicine, doi:10.2147/IJN.S313093 Clinical, Biochemical and Molecular Evaluations of Ivermectin Mucoadhesive Nanosuspension Nasal Spray in Reducing Upper Respiratory Symptoms of Mild COVID-19
63% improved recovery [p=0.0001] and 79% improved viral clearance [p=0.004]. RCT 114 patients in Egypt, 57 treated with ivermectin mucoadhesive nanosuspension intranasal spray, showing faster recovery and viral clearance with treatment. NCT04716569.
Jun 6
2021
Hariyanto et al., Reviews In Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/rmv.2265 (meta analysis) Ivermectin and outcomes from Covid-19 pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trial studies
69% lower mortality [p=0.001]. Systematic review and meta analysis of 19 RCTs showing mortality RR 0.31 [0.15-0.62].
Jun 3
2021
Wang et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147 (Review) (Preprint) Minimum manufacturing costs, national prices and estimated global availability of new repurposed therapies for COVID-19
Analysis of the manufacturing cost of several COVID-19 medications, showing a cost of $0.55 per course of ivermectin, including excipients, formulation, tax, and profit.
Jun 2
2021
Abd-Elsalam et al., Journal of Medical Virology, doi:10.1002/jmv.27122 Clinical Study Evaluating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Study
20% shorter hospitalization [p=0.09]. RCT 164 hospitalized patients in Egypt showing lower mortality and shorter hospitalization, but without statistical significance. There were no serious adverse effects. Authors suggest the low dosage may have resulted in lower efficacy th..
May 31
2021
Mondal et al., Journal of the Indian Medical Association, 119:5 Prevalence of COVID-19 Infection and Identification of Risk Factors among Asymptomatic Healthcare Workers: A Serosurvey Involving Multiple Hospitals in West Bengal
88% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.006]. Retrospective 1,470 healthcare workers in India, showing significantly lower risk of symptomatic COVID-19 with ivermectin prophylaxis.
May 18
2021
Mountain Valley MD (Preprint) (In Vitro) Mountain Valley MD Receives Successful Results From BSL-4 COVID-19 Clearance Trial on Three Variants Tested With Ivectosol™
In Vitro and mouse study with human ACE2 cells, using solubilized ivermectin with Ivectosol™, showing antiviral effect with B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and P.1 variants of SARS-CoV-2. The ability to inject ivermectin potentially reduces the onset o..
May 12
2021
FLCCC Public Statement (News) FLCCC Alliance Statement on the Irregular Actions of Public Health Agencies and the Widespread Disinformation Campaign Against Ivermectin
Analysis of the ivermectin recommendations from WHO and others, and a call to action for all citizens, scientists, and media to counter false information. Whistleblowers can submit anonymous reports and images at the bottom of this page.
May 10
2021
Faisal et al., The Professional Medical Journal, doi:10.29309/TPMJ/2021.28.05.5867 Potential use of azithromycin alone and in combination with ivermectin in fighting against the symptoms of COVID-19
68% improved recovery [p=0.005]. RCT 100 outpatients in Pakistan, 50 treated with ivermectin, showing faster recovery with ivermectin. All patients received AZ, zinc, vitamin C, vitamin D, and paracetemol. Details of randomization were not provided. No mortality or hospi..
May 5
2021
Zatloukal et al. (News) (In Vitro) News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal
News report on In Vitro results from the research institute of Prof. Zatloukal, showing that "ivermectin was able to reduce virus replication by a factor of 1,000 even at low concentrations".
May 5
2021
Qureshi et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1906750 Mechanistic insights into the inhibitory activity of FDA approved ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2: old drug with new implications
In Silico study showing inhibition of importin-α1 by ivermectin, which disrupts SARS-CoV-2 replication.
May 4
2021
Karale et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.04.30.21256415 (Preprint) (meta analysis) A Meta-analysis of Mortality, Need for ICU admission, Use of Mechanical Ventilation and Adverse Effects with Ivermectin Use in COVID-19 Patients
Systematic review and meta analysis with 30 studies included in quantitative analysis, showing mortality OR 0.39 [0.22-0.70]. Subgroup analysis of trials with severity data showed mortality OR 0.10 [0.03-0.33] for mild/moderate cases.
May 3
2021
Merino et al., Preprint (Preprint) Ivermectin and the odds of hospitalization due to COVID-19: evidence from a quasi-experimental analysis based on a public intervention in Mexico City
74% lower hospitalization [p=0.001]. Analysis of Mexico City's use of an ivermectin-based medical kit, showing significantly lower hospitalization with use. Authors use logistic-regression models with matched observations, including adjustments for age, sex, COVID severity, ..
Apr 30
2021
Kory et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377 (Review) Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Review of ivermectin trials and epidemiological data, concluding that ivermectin is effective for prophylaxis and treatment, and should be globally and systematically deployed in the prevention and treatment of COVID-19. An update notes p..
Apr 29
2021
Ahsan et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.14761 Clinical Variants, Characteristics, and Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients: A Case Series Analysis at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan
50% lower mortality [p=0.03]. Retrospective 165 hospitalized patients in Pakistan showing unadjusted lower mortality with combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment. Details of the ivermectin group compared to other patients are not provided, however ivermectin was..
Apr 19
2021
DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2021-001655 (Review) Anti-inflammatory activity of ivermectin in late-stage COVID-19 may reflect activation of systemic glycine receptors
Review suggesting that the effectiveness of ivermectin in the cytokine storm phase of COVID-19 may be, at least in part, an anti-inflammatory effect mediated by increased activation of glycine receptors on leukocytes and possibly vascular..
Apr 17
2021
Loue et al., J. Infectious Diseases and Epidemiology, doi:10.23937/2474-3658/1510202 Ivermectin and COVID-19 in Care Home: Case Report
70% lower mortality [p=0.34] and 55% lower severe cases [p=0.11]. Small quasi-randomized (patient choice) study with 25 PCR+ patients in a nursing home offered ivermectin, of which 10 chose to be treated. The mean age was 83.5 in the treatment group and 81.8 in the control group. There was lower mortali..
Apr 16
2021
Morgenstern et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.17455 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin as a SARS-CoV-2 Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis Method in Healthcare Workers: A Propensity Score-Matched Retrospective Cohort Study
74% fewer cases [p=0.008]. Propensity matched retrospective prophylaxis study of healthcare workers in the Dominican Republic showing significantly lower cases with treatment, and no hospitalization with treatment (versus 2 in the PSM matched control group). The ca..
Apr 15
2021
Schöning et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-379291/v1 (Preprint) Highly-transmissible Variants of SARS-CoV-2 May Be More Susceptible to Drug Therapy Than Wild Type Strains
In Silico study of ivermectin treatment predicting greater efficacy for variants with higher R0.
Apr 14
2021
Seet et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2021.04.035 Positive impact of oral hydroxychloroquine and povidone-iodine throat spray for COVID-19 prophylaxis: an open-label randomized trial
50% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.0009] and 6% fewer cases [p=0.61]. Prophylaxis RCT in Singapore with 3,037 low risk patients, showing lower serious cases, lower symptomatic cases, and lower confirmed cases of COVID-19 with all treatments (ivermectin, HCQ, PVP-I, and Zinc + vitamin C) compared to vitamin ..
Apr 10
2021
Bello et al., Journal of Biomolecular Structure and Dynamics, doi:10.1080/07391102.2021.1911857 Elucidation of the inhibitory activity of ivermectin with host nuclear importin α and several SARS-CoV-2 targets
In Silico analysis finding that the in vitro activity of ivermectin may explained by acting as an inhibitor of importin-α, dimeric 3CLpro, and Nsp9.
Apr 3
2021
Turkia, M., Research Gate (Review) (Preprint) A timeline of ivermectin-related events in the COVID-19 pandemic
An extensive timeline of ivermectin-related events from April 2020 to March 2021 including studies, news, health authority decisions, biased news coverage, and censorship. The author concludes that in a broader historical perspective, the..
Apr 1
2021
Mourya et al., Int. J. Health and Clinical Research Comparative Analytical Study of Two Different Drug Regimens in Treatment of Covid 19 Positive Patients in Index Medical College Hospital and Research Center, Indore, India
89% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Retrospective 100 patients in India with 50 treated with ivermectin, and SOC for all patients including HCQ+AZ, showing much higher viral clearance with ivermectin. Baseline clinical status was worse in the control group. Time of testing ..
Mar 30
2021
Wehbe et al., Front. Immunol., doi:10.3389/fimmu.2021.663586 (Review) Repurposing Ivermectin for COVID-19: Molecular Aspects and Therapeutic Possibilities
Review of how ivermectin was identified for use in COVID-19, mechanisms of action, and selected clinical trials.
Mar 30
2021
Chahla et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-495945/v1 (original preprint 3/30) (Preprint) Cluster Randomised Trials - Ivermectin Repurposing For COVID-19 Treatment Of Outpatients With Mild Disease In Primary Health Care Centers
87% higher hospital discharge [p=0.004]. Cluster RCT outpatients in Argentina showing significantly faster recovery with ivermectin. There were no deaths. Cluster RCT where outpatients in Tucumán were assigned to the ivermectin group and outpatients from San Miguel de Tucumán an..
Mar 29
2021
Kow et al., Pharmacological Reports, doi:10.1007/s43440-021-00245-z (meta analysis) The association between the use of ivermectin and mortality in patients with COVID-19: a meta-analysis
Small meta analysis of 6 RCTs showing mortality OR 0.21 [0.11-0.42]. Authors do not include two more recent RCTs with mortality results, 10 other studies with mortality results, and a total of 42 other studies including other outcomes. Au..
Mar 26
2021
Tanioka et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.26.21254377 (Preprint) Why COVID-19 is not so spread in Africa: How does Ivermectin affect it?
88% lower mortality [p=0.002]. Retrospective study of the 31 onchocerciasis-endemic countries using the community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) and the 22 non-endemic countries in Africa, showing significantly lower mortality per capita in the countries us..
Mar 25
2021
Udofia et al., Network Modeling Analysis in Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, doi:10.1007/s13721-021-00299-2 In silico studies of selected multi-drug targeting against 3CLpro and nsp12 RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase proteins of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin had the highest binding energy against the 3CLpro of SARS-CoV-2 and RdRps of both SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Mar 25
2021
Choudhury et al., Future Medicine, doi:10.2217/fvl-2020-0342 Exploring the binding efficacy of ivermectin against the key proteins of SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis: an in silico approach
In Silico analysis finding that ivermectin has high binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 viral spike protein, main protease, replicase, and human TMPRSS2 receptors.
Mar 25
2021
Huvemek Press Release (Preprint) Kovid-19 - Huvemek® Phase 2 clinical trial
32% better improvement [p=0.28]. Phase 2 results from a multicenter RCT of hospitalized patients in Bulgaria showing faster viral clearance, greater clinical improvement, and improved biomarkers with treatment. Ivermectin was taken on an empty stomach, potentially reduci..
Mar 24
2021
Yagisawa et al., The Japanese Journal of Antibiotics, 74-1, Mar 2021 (Review) Global trends in clinical studies of ivermectin in COVID-19
Review of ivermectin for COVID-19. Authors note that Kitasato University's project was expanded in response to the results of Caly et al. which had left questions regarding in vivo therapeutic levels, and the results of those studies were..
Mar 21
2021
Emmerich et al., Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, doi:10.3390/ijerph18073371 (Preprint) Comparisons between the Neighboring States of Amazonas and Pará in Brazil in the Second Wave of COVID-19 Outbreak and a Possible Role of Early Ambulatory Treatment
Comparison between the two largest neighboring states in Brazil, Amazonas and Pará, showing more than 5 times lower mortality in Pará during the second wave when the Pará government supported early treatment and Amazonas did not, compared..
Mar 18
2021
Del Franco et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1008 Ivermectin in Long-Covid Patients: A Retrospective Study
Retrospective 856 patients previously admitted to hospital for COVID-19 in Argentina, finding that ivermectin improved recovery from "long covid" symptoms.
Mar 17
2021
Dinesh Kumar et al., Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1128/AAC.01543-21 (date from earlier preprint) (In Vitro) Moxidectin and ivermectin inhibit SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells but not in human primary airway epithelium cells
In Vitro study showing moxidectin and ivermectin exhibited antiviral activity in Vero E6 cells. Authors indicate that no statistically significant effect was seen in Calu-3/PBEC cells, however Figure 3 shows a dose dependent reduction wit..
Mar 12
2021
Roy et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.08.21252883 (Preprint) Outcome of Different Therapeutic Interventions in Mild COVID-19 Patients in a Single OPD Clinic of West Bengal: A Retrospective study
6% faster recovery [p=0.87]. Retrospective database analysis of 56 mild COVID-19 patients, all treated with vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, comparing ivermectin + doxycycline (n=14), AZ (n=13), HCQ (n=14), and SOC (n=15), finding that all groups recover quickly, and ..
Mar 11
2021
Nardelli et al., Signa Vitae, doi:10.22514/sv.2021.043 (meta analysis) Crying wolf in time of Corona: the strange case of ivermectin and hydroxychloroquine. Is the fear of failure withholding potential life-saving treatment from clinical use?
79% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Meta analysis of RCT mortality results showing RR 0.19, p < 0.00001.
Mar 11
2021
Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin sales in Valle del Cauca, Colombia, patterns of AEs, and other background re López-Medina et al. 2021
Analysis of several issues with López-Medina et al. including the atypical adverse effects in the control arm and population use of ivermectin.
Mar 11
2021
Scheim et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) (meta analysis) Protocol violations in López-Medina et al.: 38 switched ivermectin (IVM) and placebo doses, failure of blinding, widespread IVM sales OTC in Cali, and nearly identical AEs for the IVM and control groups
Report on protocol violations in López-Medina et al.
Mar 10
2021
Kern et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.625678 Modeling of SARS-CoV-2 Treatment Effects for Informed Drug Repurposing
Modeling study analyzing timing and dosing regimens of hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, ivermectin, artemisinin, and nitazoxanide. The greatest benefits were seen when treatments were given immediately at the time of diagnosis. Au..
Mar 10
2021
Yesilbag et al., Virus Research, doi:10.1016/j.virusres.2021.198384 (In Vitro) Ivermectin also inhibits the replication of bovine respiratory viruses (BRSV, BPIV-3, BoHV-1, BCoV and BVDV) in vitro
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin can inhibit infection of bovine respiratory disease viral agents BCoV, BPIV-3, BVDV, BRSV and BoHV-1 at the concentrations of 2.5 and 5 μM and in a dose-dependent manner.
Mar 9
2021
Pott-Junior et al., Toxicology Reports, doi:10.1016/j.toxrep.2021.03.003 Use of ivermectin in the treatment of Covid-19: a pilot trial
85% lower ventilation [p=0.25], 85% lower ICU admission [p=0.25], and 1% improved viral clearance [p=1]. Very small RCT with 4 control patients and 28 ivermectin patients split across 3 different dosage levels, showing lower (non-statistically significant) ICU admission with treatment. Authors suggest that ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2 is safe a..
Mar 8
2021
Chamie-Quintero et al., OSF Preprints (Preprint) Ivermectin for COVID-19 in Peru: 14-fold reduction in nationwide excess deaths, p=.002 for effect by state, then 13-fold increase after ivermectin use restricted
Analysis of ivermectin use in Peru concluding that ivermectin most likely caused a 14 times reduction in excess deaths in Peru, prior to a 13 times increase after reversal of ivermectin use. Authors conclude that the results strongly sugg..
Mar 8
2021
Guzman et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.03.04.21252084 (Preprint) Factors associated with increased mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients in a Mexican public hospital: the other faces of health system oversaturation
19% lower mortality [p=0.35]. Retrospective 196 critically ill patients in Mexico. Patients overlap with the existing RCT by Beltran-Gonzalez (NCT04391127). This preprint shows a larger treated population and greater (non-statistically significant) improvement with iv..
Mar 8
2021
Galan et al., Pathogens and Global Health, doi:10.1080/20477724.2021.1890887 Phase 2 randomized study on chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine or ivermectin in hospitalized patients with severe manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection
RCT 168 very late stage severe condition hospitalized patients comparing CQ, HCQ, and ivermectin not showing significant differences. Authors were unable to add a control arm due to ethical issues. Authors claim that "the mortality r..
Mar 5
2021
Descotes, J., ImmunoSafe Consultance (Preprint) Medical Safety of Ivermectin
Safety analysis of >350 articles showing that ivermectin has an excellent safety profile. The author notes that "no severe adverse event has been reported in dozens of completed or ongoing studies involving thousands of participants..
Mar 4
2021
López-Medina et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jama.2021.3071 Effect of Ivermectin on Time to Resolution of Symptoms Among Adults With Mild COVID-19: A Randomized Clinical Trial
61% lower progression [p=0.11] and 15% improved recovery [p=0.53]. Phone survey based RCT with low risk patients, 200 ivermectin and 198 control, showing lower mortality, lower disease progression, lower treatment escalation, and faster resolution of symptoms with treatment, without reaching statistical ..
Mar 1
2021
Saha et al., Structural Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s11224-021-01776-0 (date from earlier preprint) (Preprint) The Binding mechanism of ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
In Silico analysis predicting that ivermectin has a large binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Three different computer modeling techniques show that ivermectin can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entrance via hACE2.
Feb 23
2021
Beltran Gonzalez et al., Infectious Disease Reports, doi:10.3390/idr14020020 (date from earlier preprint) Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin and Hydroxychloroquine in Patients with Severe COVID-19: A Randomized Controlled Trial
14% lower mortality [p=1], 9% lower progression [p=1], 37% lower hospital discharge [p=0.71], and 20% longer hospitalization [p=0.43]. RCT late stage severe condition (93% SOFA ≥ 2, 96% APACHE ≥ 8) high comorbidity hospitalized patients in Mexico with 36 low dose ivermectin and 37 control patients not finding significant differences. NCT04391127. Another study reports re..
Feb 20
2021
BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021 (News) BIRD Meeting 20th February 2021
The British Ivermectin Recommendation Development (BIRD) panel, with dozens of multi-national scientists & doctors, issued sweeping recommendations for the immediate global use of ivermectin.
Feb 16
2021
Elalfy et al., J. Med. Virol., doi:10.1002/jmv.26880 Effect of a combination of Nitazoxanide, Ribavirin and Ivermectin plus zinc supplement (MANS.NRIZ study) on the clearance of mild COVID-1
87% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Non-randomized controlled trial with 62 mild and early moderate patients with home treatment with ivermectin + nitazoxanide + ribavirin + zinc, showing significantly faster viral clearance.
Feb 15
2021
Behera et al., Cureus 13:8, doi:10.7759/cureus.16897 (date from earlier preprint) Prophylactic Role of Ivermectin in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers
83% fewer cases [p=0.001]. Prospective prophylaxis study with 3,532 healthcare workers, 2,199 receiving two-dose ivermectin prophylaxis, showing adjusted relative risk of confirmed COVID-19 with treatment 0.17 [0.12-0.23] p<0.001. 186 patients took only the first d..
Feb 12
2021
Biber et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2022.07.003 (results 2/12/21) The effect of ivermectin on the viral load and culture viability in early treatment of non-hospitalized patients with mild COVID-19 – A double-blind, randomized placebo-controlled trial
70% lower hospitalization [p=0.34] and 62% improved viral clearance [p=0.02]. Double blind RCT for mild-moderate COVID-19 outpatients in Israel showing significantly faster reduction in viral load with treatment, and lower hospitalization with treatment. The one treatment hospitalization was a few hours after treat..
Feb 10
2021
Lima-Morales Effectiveness of a multidrug therapy consisting of ivermectin, azithromycin, montelukast and acetylsalicylic acid to prevent hospitalization and death among ambulatory COVID-19 cases in Tlaxcala, Mexico
78% lower mortality [p=0.001], 52% lower ventilation [p=0.15], 67% lower hospitalization [p=0.001], and 59% improved recovery [p=0.001]. Prospective trial of 768 COVID-19 outpatients in Mexico, 481 treated with ivermectin, AZ, montelukast, and aspirin, and 287 control patients with various treatments, showing significantly lower mortality and hospitalization, and significa..
Feb 2
2021
Mohan et al., Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.08.021 (date from earlier preprint) Single-dose oral ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): a single-centre randomized, placebo-controlled trial
62% improved recovery [p=0.27] and 24% improved viral clearance [p=0.18]. RCT in India with low risk patients, comparing 24mg ivermectin, 12mg ivermectin, and placebo showing non-statistically significant improvements in recovery and PCR+ status (day 5 both arms, day 7 24mg only) with treatment, and showing gre..
Jan 29
2021
Cobos-Campos et al., Clin. Res. Trials, 2021, doi:10.15761/CRT.1000333 (meta analysis) Potential use of ivermectin for the treatment and profilaxis of SARS-CoV-2 infection: Efficacy of ivermectin for SARS-CoV-2
Review finding that there appears to be sufficient evidence to recommend ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19, especially in the early stages of the disease.
Jan 27
2021
Castaneda-Sabogal et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.26.21250420 (Preprint) (meta analysis) Outcomes of Ivermectin in the treatment of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Meta analysis of a very small subset of studies exhibiting very high bias and significant flaws. Some of the problems: - As of the publication date, there are 35 studies, authors include only 4. (They list 5, but two are the same study, p..
Jan 25
2021
Eweas et al., Frontiers in Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fmicb.2020.592908 Molecular Docking Reveals Ivermectin and Remdesivir as Potential Repurposed Drugs Against SARS-CoV-2
Molecular docking analysis showing that ivermectin efficiently binds to the viral S protein as well as the human cell surface receptors ACE-2 and TMPRSS2; therefore, it might be involved in inhibiting the entry of the virus into the host ..
Jan 23
2021
Errecalde et al., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2021.01.017 Safety and Pharmacokinetic Assessments of a Novel Ivermectin Nasal Spray Formulation in a Pig Model
Animal study of a novel spray formulation of ivermectin, showing an advantage of the spray formulation in terms of fast attainment of high and persistent ivermectin concentrations in nasopharyngeal tissue.
Jan 21
2021
Chamie-Quintero et al., Preprint, doi:10.2139/ssrn.3765018 (Preprint) Sharp Reductions in COVID-19 Case Fatalities and Excess Deaths in Peru in Close Time Conjunction, State-By-State, with Ivermectin Treatments
Analysis of ivermectin usage within states in Peru showing sharp reductions in COVID-19 deaths corresponding to the usage of ivermectin treatment.
Jan 20
2021
Mody et al., Communications Biology, doi:10.1038/s42003-020-01577-x (In Vitro) Identification of 3-chymotrypsin like protease (3CLPro) inhibitors as potential anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents
Computational molecular modeling screening and in vitro analysis for inhibitory effects on SARS-CoV-2 specific 3CLpro enzyme, showing that ivermectin blocked more than 85% of 3CLpro activity of SARS-CoV-2. Antiviral activity of ivermectin..
Jan 19
2021
Shahbaznejad et al., Clinical Therapeutics, doi:10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.04.007 (partial results available 1/19) Effects of Ivermectin in Patients With COVID-19: A Multicenter, Double-blind, Randomized, Controlled Clinical Trial
32% faster recovery [p=0.05] and 15% shorter hospitalization [p=0.02]. RCT in Iran showing shorter time to recovery and shorter hospitalization time with ivermectin. There were no adverse effects. There was one death in the treatment group, the patient was in critical condition at baseline and died within 24..
Jan 19
2021
Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-148845/v1 (Preprint) (meta analysis) Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
75% lower mortality [p=0.0002]. Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there ..
Jan 16
2021
Samaha et al., Viruses, doi:10.3390/v13060989 (results 1/16) Effects of a Single Dose of Ivermectin on Viral and Clinical Outcomes in Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infected Subjects: A Pilot Clinical Trial in Lebanon
This study was retracted.
Jan 16
2021
Bukhari et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.02.02.21250840 (results 1/16) (Preprint) Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19 Patients with Mild to Moderate Disease
82% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. RCT of relatively low risk hospitalized patients with 50 ivermectin and 50 control patients showing significantly faster viral clearance with treatment. 9 patients in the treatment arm were lost to followup compared with 5 in the control ..
Jan 13
2021
Kory et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.643369 (Review) Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. This paper was censored by the journal after acceptance..
Jan 12
2021
Okumuş et al., BMC Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1186/s12879-021-06104-9 (date from earlier preprint) Evaluation of the Effectiveness and Safety of Adding Ivermectin to Treatment in Severe COVID-19 Patients
33% lower mortality [p=0.55], 43% better improvement [p=0.18], and 80% improved viral clearance [p=0.02]. Small RCT for severe COVID-19 comparing the addition of ivermectin to SOC (low dose HCQ+AZ+favipiravir), with 30 treatment and 30 control patients in Turkey, showing lower mortality and faster clinical recovery. Authors also investigate t..
Jan 11
2021
Chahla et al., American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001433 Intensive Treatment With Ivermectin and Iota-Carrageenan as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 in Health Care Workers From Tucuman, Argentina
95% fewer moderate/severe cases [p=0.002] and 84% fewer cases [p=0.004]. Prophylaxis RCT for ivermectin and iota-carrageenan in Argentina, 117 healthcare workers treated with ivermectin and iota-carrageenan, and 117 controls, showing significantly lower cases with treatment. There were no moderate/severe cases..
Jan 11
2021
Bousquet-Mélou et al., Frontiers in Pharmacology, doi:10.3389/fphar.2021.666348 (date from earlier preprint) A Large Impact of Obesity on the Disposition of Ivermectin, Moxidectin and Eprinomectin in a Canine Model: Relevance for COVID-19 Patients
Animal dosing study with an obese dog model concluding that ivermectin maintenance doses should be based on lean body weight and not the total body weight in obese subjects, while the loading dose should be based on the total body weight.
Jan 10
2021
Formiga et al., J. Control Release, doi:10.1016/j.jconrel.2020.10.009 (Review) Ivermectin: an award-winning drug with expected antiviral activity against COVID-19
Review hypothesizing that micro- and nanotechnology-based formulations of ivermectin for the pulmonary delivery of ivermectin may be beneficial for use with COVID-19.
Jan 9
2021
Ravikirti et al., Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences, doi:10.18433/jpps32105 Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial
89% lower mortality [p=0.12], 79% lower ventilation [p=0.1], 14% lower ICU admission [p=0.8], and 89% higher hospital discharge [p=0.12]. RCT with 112 mild and moderate COVID-19 patients in India, showing lower mortality, ventilation, and ICU admission, although not statistically significant due to the small number of events. There was no mortality in the treatment arm (55 ..
Jan 8
2021
Chamie, J. (News) COVID-19 in Mexico
Comparison of COVID-19 death rates in Mexico showing that the only state using ivermectin has a dramatically lower rate.
Jan 6
2021
Babalola et al., QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab035 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: A randomised controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos
64% improved viral clearance [p=0.11] and 41% improved recovery [p=0.07]. Small RCT comparing ivermectin 6mg & 12mg q84hr with lopinavir/ritonavir, showing a statistically significant and dose dependent effect of ivermectin on reducing the time to PCR-. The study does not report mortality, hospitalization, prog..
Jan 6
2021
Hirsch et al., Microbiology & Infectious Diseases Ivermectin as Prophylaxis Against COVID-19 Retrospective Cases Evaluation
Report on ivermectin prophylaxis for healthcare workers in a hospital in Argentina, showing 0 cases in the 162 participants. Dosage was 0.2mg/kg weekly for eight weeks, followed by 4 months rest.
Jan 3
2021
Lawrie et al., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) Ivermectin reduces the risk of death from COVID-19 – a rapid review and meta-analysis in support of the recommendation of the Front Line COVID-19 Critical Care Alliance
83% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Meta analysis confirming the effectiveness of ivermectin for COVID-19, showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.18-0.35] and prophylaxis cases RR 0.12 [0.08-0.18].
Dec 31
2020
Wijaya et al., Cermin Dunia Kedokteran, 47:7 Ivermectin as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for COVID-19 – case studies
Case report on 3 confirmed cases of COVID-19 with significant clinical and radiological improvement after a single dose of ivermectin.
Dec 31
2020
Madrid et al., Heliyon, doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e05820 Safety of oral administration of high doses of ivermectin by means of biocompatible polyelectrolytes formulation
In vivo analysis of the safety of high dose ivermectin with a Corydoras fish animal model.
Dec 30
2020
McCullough et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.264 (Review) Multifaceted highly targeted sequential multidrug treatment of early ambulatory high-risk SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19)
Review urging early treatment of COVID-19 with sequential multidrug treatment that has been shown to be safe and effective. Proposed treatment includes zinc, vitamin D & C, quercetin, and depending on age, comorbidities, and symptoms may ..
Dec 30
2020
Procter et al., Reviews in Cardiovascular Medicine, doi:10.31083/j.rcm.2020.04.260 Clinical outcomes after early ambulatory multidrug therapy for high-risk SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) infection
Retrospective 922 outpatients, with 320 treated early due to age>50 or comorbidities, showing 2.2% hospitalization and 0.3% death, which authors note is considerably lower than reported in other studies in their region. At least two of zi..
Dec 27
2020
Hill, A., Preprint (Preprint) (meta analysis) Meta-analysis of clinical trials of ivermectin to treat COVID-19 infection
WHO-funded meta analysis showing ivermectin treatment mortality relative risk RR 0.17 [0.08-0.35] for RCTs and RR 0.28 [0.13-0.62] for RCTs and observational studies, and confirming a dose-response effect.
Dec 24
2020
Jeffreys et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2022.106542 (date from earlier preprint) (In Vitro) Remdesivir-ivermectin combination displays synergistic interaction with improved in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2
In Vitro study showing enhanced antiviral activity of ivermectin and remdesivir in combination.
Dec 20
2020
IVERCOR PREP, Preliminary Results (Preprint) Ivermectina en agentes de salud e IVERCOR COVID19
73% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Report on ivermectin prophylaxis in a hospital in Argentina showing lower cases for healthcare workers taking ivermectin. Results have been published in the press [lanacion.com.ar] (interim results), and a presentation posted online:..
Dec 18
2020
Kory et al., FLCCC Alliance (Preprint) (meta analysis) Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19
69% lower mortality [p<0.0001]. Meta analysis of ivermectin clinical studies and natural experiments where ivermectin has been widely used, showing efficacy of ivermectin in prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. There is potentially inaccurate data collection and/or re..
Dec 15
2020
Alam et al., European Journal ofMedical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.6.599 Ivermectin as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Dhaka – An Observational Study
91% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. 91% reduction in COVID-19 cases with ivermectin prophylaxis. 118 healthcare workers in Bangladesh, 58 receiving ivermectin 12mg monthly, showing RR 0.094, p < 0.0001.
Dec 15
2020
Ghauri et al., International Journal of Clinical Studies & Medical Case Reports, doi:10.46998/IJCMCR.2021.13.000320 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin Use Associated with Reduced Duration of Covid-19 Febrile Illness in a Community Setting
92% improved recovery [p=0.04]. Retrospective 95 outpatients in Pakistan with strong clinical suspicion of COVID-19 (testing was not widely available), with 40 patients treated with ivermectin, showing significantly shorter duration of febrile illness with treatment. Mo..
Dec 11
2020
Hussain et al., International Journal of Molecular and Immuno Oncology, doi:10.25259/IJMIO_30_2020 (Preprint) Outcome of ivermectin and doxycycline in cancer patients with COVID-19: A positive experience in Bangladesh
Small case study of ivermectin + doxycycline with 8 cancer patients, with all patients becoming PCR- by day 6 when tested again.
Dec 7
2020
Chaccour et al., EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100720 (date from earlier preprint) The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral response in patients with non-severe COVID-19: A pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial
96% improved symptoms [p=0.05], 95% improved viral load [p=0.01], and 8% improved viral clearance [p=1]. Tiny RCT for early treatment of mild COVID-19 in low risk patients, with 12 400mcg/kg single dose ivermectin patients and 12 control patients, showing significantly faster viral load reduction and symptom improvement with ivermectin. Aver..
Dec 4
2020
Kalfas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.30.20236570 (Preprint) (meta analysis) The therapeutic potential of ivermectin for COVID-19: a systematic review of mechanisms and evidence
Review of ivermectin mechanisms and 8 trials, showing positive mortality benefit, reduced time to clinical recovery, reduced incidence of disease progression, and decreased duration of hospital admission in patients across all stages of c..
Dec 4
2020
Surnar et al., ACS Pharmacol. Transl. Sci., doi:10.1021/acsptsci.0c00179 (In Vitro) Clinically Approved Antiviral Drug in an Orally Administrable Nanoparticle for COVID-19
In Vitro analysis of ivermectin with orally administrable nanoparticles showing efficacy for decreasing expression of the viral spike protein and ACE2. Inhibition of nuclear transport activities mediated through proteins such as importin ..
Dec 2
2020
Ahmed et al., International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191 A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness
85% improved symptoms [p=0.09], 76% improved viral clearance [p=0.03], and 1% shorter hospitalization. Small 72 patient RCT of ivermectin and ivermectin + doxycycline showing faster recovery with ivermectin. The ivermectin + doxycycline group uses only a single dose of ivermectin vs. 5 daily doses for the ivermectin group. PCR testing was ..
Dec 2
2020
Chamie, J. (News) The effect of using ivermectin to control COVID-19 in Chiapas
Report showing that after starting to distribute ivermectin in drug kits in July, the Mexican state of Chiapas has seen a dramatic divergence from other states with much lower mortality [sie7edechiapas.com, twitter.com].
Dec 1
2020
Alonso et al., (Preprint) COVID-19: Uso de ivermectina
92% lower mortality [p=0.009]. Observational study in Argentina showing significantly lower mortality in the 60 days after adopting ivermectin compared to the 60 days before, relative risk RR 0.082, p=0.003.
Nov 28
2020
Bernigaud et al., Annals of Dermatology and Venereology, doi:10.1016/j.annder.2020.09.231 Ivermectin benefit: from scabies to COVID-19, an example of serendipity
99% lower mortality [p=0.08] and 55% fewer cases [p=0.01]. 69 residents of a French care home, median age 90, were treated with ivermectin for a scabies outbreak. 3,062 residents in 45 nearby comparable homes were used as controls. 7 of 69 treated patients had probable or certain COVID-19, with n..
Nov 28
2020
Hellwig et al., International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106248 A COVID-19 Prophylaxis? Lower incidence associated with prophylactic administration of Ivermectin
78% fewer cases [p=0.02]. Analysis of COVID-19 cases vs. widespread prophylactic use of ivermectin for parasitic infections showing significantly lower incidence of COVID-19 cases.
Nov 24
2020
Niaee et al., Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, doi:10.4103/1995-7645.318304 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: A randomized multi-center clinical trial
82% lower mortality [p=0.001]. 82% lower mortality with ivermectin. RCT with 180 hospitalized patients showing reduced mortality and hospital stay with ivermectin, with a wide margin of safety. All patients received SOC including low dose HCQ. Analysis suggests randomi..
Nov 22
2020
de Melo et al., EMBO Mol. Med., doi:10.15252/emmm.202114122 (date from earlier preprint) Attenuation of clinical and immunological outcomes during SARS-CoV-2 infection by ivermectin
Animal study showing that standard doses of ivermectin prevented clinical deterioration, reduced olfactory deficit, and limited the inflammation of the upper and lower respiratory tracts in SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters.
Nov 18
2020
Budhiraja et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.16.20232223 (Preprint) Clinical Profile of First 1000 COVID-19 Cases Admitted at Tertiary Care Hospitals and the Correlates of their Mortality: An Indian Experience
99% lower mortality [p=0.04]. Retrospective 976 hospitalized patients with 34 treated with ivermectin showing lower mortality with ivermectin in unadjusted results.
Nov 17
2020
Carvallo et al., Journal of Biomedical Research and Clinical Investigation, doi:10.31546/2633-8653.1007 Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel
100% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and iota-carrageenan showing 0 of 788 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 237 of 407 control. The authors later reported that carrageenan is not necessary in this protocol [youtube.com]. S..
Nov 14
2020
Spoorthi et al., IAIM, 2020, 7:10, 177-182 Utility of Ivermectin and Doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARSCoV-2
21% faster recovery [p=0.03] and 16% shorter hospitalization [p=0.01]. 100 patient prospective trial of ivermectin + doxycycline showing reduced time to symptom resolution and shorter hospital stay with treatment.
Nov 13
2020
Elgazzar et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-100956/v2 (Preprint) Efficacy and Safety of Ivermectin for Treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 Pandemic
This study was withdrawn.
Nov 11
2020
Camprubí et al., PLoS ONE, 15:11, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0242184 Lack of efficacy of standard doses of ivermectin in severe COVID-19 patients
40% lower ventilation [p=0.67], 33% lower ICU admission [p=1], 33% worse improvement [p=1], and 25% worse viral clearance [p=1]. Tiny 26 patient retrospective study of very late treatment with ivermectin 200 μg/kg, median 12 days after symptoms, not showing significant differences. Authors suggest the dose is too low and recommend evaluation of higher doses. All pa..
Nov 10
2020
Turkia, M., ResearchGate (Review) (Preprint) FLCCC Alliance MATH+ ascorbic acid and I-MASK+ ivermectin protocols for COVID-19 — a brief review
Review suggesting that ivermectin should be used based on existing data suggesting significant benefits, and that waiting for additional data may result in significant harm.
Nov 4
2020
Cadegiani et al., New Microbes and New Infections, doi:10.1016/j.nmni.2021.100915 (date from earlier preprint) Early COVID-19 Therapy with azithromycin plus nitazoxanide, ivermectin or hydroxychloroquine in Outpatient Settings Significantly Improved COVID-19 outcomes compared to Known outcomes in untreated patients
94% lower ventilation [p=0.005] and 98% lower hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Comparison of HCQ, nitazoxanide, and ivermectin showing similar effectiveness for overall clinical outcomes in COVID-19 when used before seven days of symptoms, and overwhelmingly superior compared to the untreated COVID-19 population, ev..
Nov 3
2020
Morgenstern et al., J. Clinical Trials (date from earlier preprint) The Use of Compassionate Ivermectin in the Management of SymptomaticOutpatients and Hospitalized Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Covid-19 at theCentro Medico Bournigal and at the Centro Medico Punta Cana, GrupoRescue, Dominican Republic, from May 1 to August 10, 2020
Retrospective 3,099 outpatients treated with ivermectin in an ER. Of 2,706 treated on an outpatient basis, 18 were subsequently hospitalized, 2 in the ICU, and there was one death (0.04%). The average treatment delay for patients treated ..
Nov 3
2020
Behera et al., PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163 (date from earlier preprint) Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study
54% fewer cases [p=0.0007]. Retrospective matched case-control prophylaxis study for HCQ, ivermectin, and vitamin C with 372 healthcare workers, showing lower COVID-19 incidence for all treatments, with statistical significance reached for ivermectin. HCQ OR 0.56, p..
Nov 2
2020
Arévalo et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-021-86679-0 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin reduces in vivo coronavirus infection in a mouse experimental model
Mouse study showing ivermectin reducing MHV viral load and disease. MHV is a type 2 family RNA coronavirus similar to SARS-CoV2.
Oct 31
2020
Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) COVID-19: Effectiveness of pre-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in exposed persons
Pre-exposure prophylaxis study with 129 people split into high/low exposure groups, with each group split into different dosing regimens, showing higher effectivess with more frequent doses. High-exposure group: every 7 days dosing: 0 of ..
Oct 31
2020
Szente Fonseca et al., Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease, doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101906 Risk of Hospitalization for Covid-19 Outpatients Treated with Various Drug Regimens in Brazil: Comparative Analysis
14% higher hospitalization [p=0.53]. Retrospective 717 patients in Brazil showing OR 1.17 [0.72-1.90] for ivermectin. This paper focuses on HCQ, event counts for ivermectin are not provided. With significant correlation between the variables used, including overlap in the pr..
Oct 26
2020
Hashim et al., Iraqi Journal of Medical Science, 19:1 Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq
92% lower mortality [p=0.03], 83% lower progression [p=0.07], and 41% faster recovery [p=0.0001]. RCT 70 ivermectin+doxycycline patients and 70 control patients showing reduced time to recovery and reduced mortality with treatment. Earlier treatment was more successful. For ethical reasons, critical patients were all in the treatment ..
Oct 22
2020
Guerrero et al., Colombia Médica, doi:10.25100/cm.v51i4.4613 COVID-19: The Ivermectin African Enigma
Study of African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) countries, which used ivermectin, with non-APOC countries in Africa, showing 28% lower mortality for APOC countries, relative risk RR = 0.72 [0.67-0.78]. See also..
Oct 19
2020
Carvallo et al., NCT04425850 (Preprint) Usefulness of Topic Ivermectin and Carrageenan to Prevent Contagion of Covid 19 (IVERCAR)
96% fewer cases [p<0.0001]. Prophylaxis study using ivermectin and carrageenan showing 0 of 131 cases from treated healthcare workers, compared to 11 of 98 control. The effect is likely to be primarily due to ivermectin - the author has later reported that carrageen..
Oct 13
2020
Chaccour et al., Scientific Reports, doi:10.1038/s41598-020-74084-y Nebulized ivermectin for COVID-19 and other respiratory diseases, a proof of concept, dose-ranging study in rats
Study showing that nebulized ivermectin can reach pharmacodynamic concentrations in the lung tissue of rats. Authors note that additional experiments are required to assess the safety of this formulation in larger animals.
Oct 13
2020
Rajter et al., Chest, doi:10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.009 Use of Ivermectin is Associated with Lower Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with COVID-19 (ICON study)
46% lower mortality [p=0.05] and 64% lower ventilation [p=0.1]. Retrospective 280 hospitalized patients showing lower mortality with ivermectin (13.3% vs 24.5%), propensity matched odds ratio OR 0.47 [0.22-0.99], p=0.045.
Oct 9
2020
Mahmud et al., Journal of International Medical Research, doi:10.5061/dryad.qjq2bvqf6 (date from earlier preprint) Ivermectin in combination with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 symptoms: a randomized trial
86% lower mortality [p=0.25], 57% lower progression [p=0.001], 94% improved recovery [p<0.0001], and 39% improved viral clearance [p=0.002]. RCT for ivermectin+doxycycline showing improvements in mortality, recovery, progression, and virological cure. 183 treatment and 183 control patients with no deaths in the treatment arm vs. 3 in the control arm (the 3 control deaths are n..
Oct 8
2020
Francés-Monerris et al., ChemRxiv, doi:10.26434/chemrxiv.12782258.v1 (Preprint) Has Ivermectin Virus-Directed Effects against SARS-CoV-2? Rationalizing the Action of a Potential Multitarget Antiviral Agent
In silico study showing that ivermectin is capable of interfering in different key steps of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle.
Oct 8
2020
Soto-Becerra et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.10.06.20208066 (Preprint) Real-World Effectiveness of hydroxychloroquine, azithromycin, and ivermectin among hospitalized COVID-19 patients: Results of a target trial emulation using observational data from a nationwide Healthcare System in Peru
17% lower mortality [p=0.01]. Retrospective database study of 5683 patients, 692 received HCQ/CQ+AZ, 200 received HCQ/CQ, 203 received ivermectin, 1600 received AZ, 358 received ivermectin+AZ, and 2630 received standard of care. This study includes anyone with ICD-10 ..
Sep 30
2020
Chachar et al., International Journal of Sciences, 9:31-35, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2378 Effectiveness of Ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 Patients
10% improved recovery [p=0.5]. Small RCT with 25 ivermectin and 25 control patients, not finding a significant difference in recovery at day 7.
Sep 24
2020
Khan et al., Archivos de Bronconeumología, doi:10.1016/j.arbres.2020.08.007 (Letter) Ivermectin treatment may improve the prognosis of patients with COVID-19
87% lower mortality [p=0.02], 89% lower ICU admission [p=0.007], 83% lower progression [p=0.0004], and 87% improved recovery [p=0.02]. Retrospective 115 ivermectin patients and 133 control patients showing significantly lower death and faster viral clearance. Some potential issues and the authors' response can be found in [sciencedirect.com, sciencedirect.com].
Sep 22
2020
Li et al., J. Cellular Physiology, doi:10.1002/jcp.30055 (In Vitro) Quantitative proteomics reveals a broad‐spectrum antiviral property of ivermectin, benefiting for COVID‐19 treatment
In Vitro study showing Ivermectin is a safe wide-spectrum antiviral against SARS-CoV-2, human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), and HIV. Authors note that the combination of ivermectin and other drugs might result in more fa..
Sep 15
2020
Carvallo et al., Journal of Clinical Trials, 11:459 (date from earlier preprint) Safety and Efficacy of the Combined Use of Ivermectin, Dexamethasone, Enoxaparin and Aspirina against COVID-19 the I.D.E.A. Protocol
85% lower mortality [p=0.08]. Prospective trial of ivermectin, dexamethasone, enoxaparin, and aspirin, showing no hospitalization for mild cases, and lower mortality for moderate/severe patients.
Sep 15
2020
Jans et al., Cells 2020, 9:9, 2100, doi:10.3390/cells9092100 (Review) (Letter) Ivermectin as a Broad-Spectrum Host-Directed Antiviral: The Real Deal?
Review of ivermectin as a host-directed broad-spectrum antiviral agent for a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. Cell culture experiments show robust antiviral action towards HIV-1, dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus, West Nile virus, Ve..
Sep 9
2020
Swargiary, A., Research Square, doi:10.21203/rs.3.rs-73308/v1 (Preprint) Ivermectin as a promising RNA-dependent RNA polymerase inhibitor and a therapeutic drug against SARS-CoV2: Evidence from in silico studies
In Silico study showing high binding affinity of ivermectin with SARS-CoV-2 RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, suggesting ivermectin as an inhibitor of RdRp.
Sep 6
2020
DiNicolantonio et al., Open Heart, doi:10.1136/openhrt-2020-001350 (Review) Ivermectin may be a clinically useful anti-inflammatory agent for late-stage COVID-19
Review suggesting that ivermectin may be useful for late stage COVID-19. Authors note that ivermectin, in doses at or modestly above the standard clinical dose, may have important clinical potential for managing disorders associated with..
Sep 3
2020
Podder et al., IMC J. Med. Science, 14:2, July 2020 Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study
16% faster recovery [p=0.34]. Small RCT with 32 ivermectin patients and 30 control patients. The mean recovery time after enrolment in the intervention arm was 5.31 ± 2.48 days vs. 6.33 ± 4.23 days in the control arm, p > 0.05. Negative PCR results were not significan..
Aug 31
2020
Kishoria et al., Paripex - Indian Journal of Research, doi:10.36106/paripex/4801859 Ivermectin as adjuvant to hydroxychloroquine in patients resistant to standard treatment for SARS-CoV-2: results of an open-label randomized clinical study
8% lower hospital discharge [p=1] and 8% worse viral clearance [p=1]. Small RCT of hospitalized patients in India with 19 ivermectin patients and 13 control patients, with all receiving SOC including HCQ, showing no significant differences. The patient population is biased because the study recruited patien..
Aug 28
2020
Shouman et al., Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, doi:10.7860/JCDR/2020/46795.0000 Use of Ivermectin as a Potential Chemoprophylaxis for COVID-19 in Egypt: A Randomised Clinical Trial
91% fewer symptomatic cases [p=0.001] and 93% lower severe cases [p=0.002]. PEP trial for asymptomatic close contacts of COVID-19 patients, 203 ivermectin patients and 101 control patients. 7.4% of contacts developed COVID-19 in the ivermectin group vs. 58.4% in the control group, adjusted odds ratio OR 0.087, p ..
Aug 15
2020
Espitia-Hernandez et al., Biomedical Research, 31:5 Effects of Ivermectin-azithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
70% faster recovery [p=0.0001] and 97% improved viral clearance [p<0.0001]. Small study with 28 patients treated with ivermectin + AZ + cholecalciferol and 7 control patients. All treated patients were PCR- at day 10 while all control patients remained PCR+. The mean duration of symptoms was 3 days in the treatme..
Aug 14
2020
Bhattacharya et al., Int. J. Scientific Research, doi:10.36106/ijsr/7232245 Observational Study on Clinical Features, Treatment and Outcome of COVID 19 in a tertiary care Centre in India- a retrospective case series
Retrospective 148 hospitalized patients showing triple therapy with ivermectin + atorvastatin + N-acetylcysteine resulted in a 1.35% case fatality rate which was well below the national average.
Jul 31
2020
Vora et al., Indian Journal of Tuberculosis, doi:10.1016/j.ijtb.2020.07.031 (Review) White paper on Ivermectin as a potential therapy for COVID-19
Panel review of ivermectin reporting that "ivermectin in the dose of 12mg BD alone or in combination with other therapy for 5–7 days may be considered as safe therapeutic option for mild moderate or severe cases of Covid-19 infection..
Jul 31
2020
Chang et al., ResearchGate (Preprint) Post-acute or prolonged COVID-19: ivermectin treatment for patients with persistent symptoms or post-acute symptoms
Report on 33 patients with persistent or post-acute symptoms treated with ivermectin, showing a high rate of clinical improvement.
Jul 31
2020
Chang et al., ResearchGate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34561.48483/2 (Preprint) (Theory) COVID-19: Post-exposure prophylaxis with ivermectin in contacts. At Homes, Places of Work, Nursing Homes, Prisons, and Others
Proposed PEP protocol based on ivermectin.
Jul 31
2020
Alam et al., Journal of Bangladesh College of Physicians and Surgeons, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0.47512 (Preprint) A Case Series of 100 COVID-19 Positive Patients Treated with Combination of Ivermectin and Doxycycline
Case study of 100 patients treated with ivermectin and doxycycline, with no ICU admission, deaths, or serious side effects reported.
Jul 31
2020
Rahman et al., J. Bangladesh Coll. Phys. Surg. 38, 5-9, doi:10.3329/jbcps.v38i0 Comparison of Viral Clearance between Ivermectin with Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine with Azithromycin in COVID-19 Patients
Comparison of 200 patients treated with ivermectin + doxycycline and 200 treated with HCQ + AZ. The HCQ + AZ group had more severe cases at baseline. Viral clearance was faster with ivermectin + doxycycline, however ivermectin clearance r..
Jul 21
2020
Chang et al., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.11985.35680/3 (Preprint) COVID-19: Ivermectin Prophylaxis in Adult Contacts: First Report on Health Personnel and Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
Report on ivermectin post-exposure prophylaxis with 33 patients, showing no cases over 21 days followup.
Jul 14
2020
Chowdhury et al., Eurasian Journal of Medicine and Oncology, doi:10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263 A Comparative Study on Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin Therapy on COVID-19 Patients
81% lower hospitalization [p=0.23], 46% improved recovery [p<0.0001], and 81% improved viral clearance [p=0.23]. Small 116 patient RCT with low-risk patients comparing ivermectin+doxycycline and HCQ+AZ, showing lower hospitalization, higher viral clearance, and faster symptom resolution and viral clearance with ivermectin+doxycycline. Mid-recovery r..
Jul 8
2020
Gorial et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.07.07.20145979 (Preprint) Effectiveness of Ivermectin as add-on Therapy in COVID-19 Management (Pilot Trial)
42% shorter hospitalization [p<0.0001]. Small trial of hospitalized patients with 16 of 87 patients being treated with ivermectin, showing a significantly lower mean hospital stay with ivermectin: 7.62 vs. 13.22 days, p=0.00005. 0 of 16 ivermectin patients died vs. 2 of 71 cont..
Jun 19
2020
Lehrer et al., In Vivo, 34:5, 3023-3026, doi:10.21873/invivo.12134 Ivermectin Docks to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-binding Domain Attached to ACE2
In silico analysis showing ivermectin docking which may interfere with the attachment of the spike to the human cell membrane.
Jun 16
2020
Ramos et al., Preprint (Preprint) Intervención de la Ivermectina Pre-Hospitalaria para la Modificación de la Evolución del Covid19. Estudio realizado en Perú
Prospective study of 63 outpatients in Peru treated with ivermectin, reporting significant improvement within 24 hours.
Jun 12
2020
Heidary et al., The Journal of Antibiotics, 73, 593–602, doi:10.1038/s41429-020-0336-z (Review) Ivermectin: a systematic review from antiviral effects to COVID-19 complementary regimen
Review of the antimicrobial, antiviral, and anti-cancer properties of ivermectin. Antiviral effects have been reported for Zika, dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, Hendra, Newcastle, Venezuelan equine encephalitis, chikungunya, Semliki Fore..
May 20
2020
Arshad et al., Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, doi:10.1002/cpt.1909 (Dosing) Prioritization of Anti-SARS-Cov-2 Drug Repurposing Opportunities Based on Plasma and Target Site Concentrations Derived from their Established Human Pharmacokinetics
Pharmacokinetic analysis predicting that ivermectin will achieve lung concentration over 10 times higher than the reported EC50.
May 2
2020
Chang, G., Research Gate, doi:10.13140/RG.2.2.34689.48482/7 (Preprint) Inclusión de la ivermectina en la primera línea de acción terapéutica para COVID-19
Peru observational case study of 7 patients treated with ivermectin, showing improvement and resolution of fever within 48 hours, and 100% recovery.
Apr 21
2020
Bray et al., Antiviral Res., doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104805 (Review) (Preprint) Ivermectin and COVID-19: A report in Antiviral Research, widespread interest, an FDA warning, two letters to the editor and the authors' responses
Responses to Caly et al., and the author's reply. The original authors note that "ivermectin's key direct target in mammalian cells is a not a viral component, but a host protein important in intracellular transport; the fact that it..
Apr 3
2020
Caly et al., Antiviral Research, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787 (In Vitro) The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro
In Vitro study showing that ivermectin is an inhibitor of SARS-CoV-2, with a single addition to Vero-hSLAM cells 2h post infection with SARS-CoV-2 able to effect ~5000-fold reduction in viral RNA at 48h. Some people claim this study shows..
2013
Guzzo et al., J. Clinical Pharmacology, doi:10.1177/009127002237994 Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Escalating High Doses of Ivermectin in Healthy Adult Subjects
Safety study concluding that ivermectin was generally well tolerated, with no indication of associated CNS toxicity for doses up to 10 times the highest FDA-approved dose. Adverse effects were similar between ivermectin and placebo and di..
1990
Chiu et al., J. Agric. Food Chem., doi:10.1021/jf00101a015 Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat
Animal study showing that lung tissue concentration of ivermectin may be ~20 times higher than plasma concentration.
For search methods, inclusion criteria, effect extraction criteria (more serious outcomes have priority), PRISMA answers, and statistical methods see methods. Meta, Theory, Safety, Review, and News items are not included in the study count. There is a total of 263 items. Studies with preprints and journal versions are listed under the earlier preprint date.
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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