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The Binding mechanism of ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2

Saha et al., Structural Chemistry, doi:10.1007/s11224-021-01776-0 (date from preprint)
Mar 2021  
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In Silico analysis predicting that ivermectin has a large binding affinity for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Three different computer modeling techniques show that ivermectin can inhibit SARS-CoV-2 entrance via hACE2.
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N7 Götz, Dengue Tay, Wagstaff, HIV-1 Wagstaff, Simian virus 40 Wagstaff (B), Zika Barrows, Yang, West Nile Yang, Yellow Fever Mastrangelo, Varghese, Japanese encephalitis Mastrangelo, Chikungunya Varghese, Semliki Forest virus Varghese, Human papillomavirus Li, Epstein-Barr Li, BK Polyomavirus Bennett, and Sindbis virus Varghese.
Ivermectin is an inhibitor of importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins Götz, Kosyna, Wagstaff, Wagstaff (B), a SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro inhibitor Mody, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination Boschi, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury Abd-Elmawla, Ma, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation Vottero, shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model of severe infection/inflammation that shares key pathological features of severe COVID-19 DiNicolantonio, Zhang, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage Zhao, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage Liu, Liu (B), has immunomodulatory Munson and anti-inflammatory DiNicolantonio (B), Yan properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile Descotes.
Saha et al., 1 Mar 2021, preprint, 2 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
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The Binding mechanism of Ivermectin and levosalbutamol with spike protein of SARS-CoV-2
Joyanta Kumar Saha, Md. Jahir Raihan
In this study, we have investigated the binding mechanism of two FDA approved drugs (ivermectin and levosalbutamol) with the spike protein of SARs-CoV-2 using three different computational modeling techniques. Molecular docking results predict that ivermectin shows a large binding a nity for spike protein (-9.0 kcal/mol) compared to levosalbutamol (-4.1 kcal/mol). Ivermectin binds with GLN492, GLN493, GLY496 and TRY505 residues in the spike protein through hydrogen bonds and levosalbutamol binds with TYR453 and TYR505 residues. Using density functional theory (DFT) studies, we have calculated the binding energies between ivermectin and levosalbutamol with residues in spike protein which favor their binding are − 17.8 kcal/mol and − 20.08 kcal/mol, respectively. The natural bond orbital (NBO) charge analysis has been performed to estimate the amount of charge transfer that occurred by two drugs during interaction with residues. Molecular dynamics (MD) study con rms the stability of spike protein bound with ivermectin through RMSD and RMSF analyses. Three different computer modeling techniques reveal that ivermectin is more stable than levosalbutamol in the active site of spike protein where hACE2 binds. Therefore, ivermectin can be a suitable inhibitor for SARS-CoV-2 to enter into the human cell through hACE2.
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