Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All ivermectin studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchIvermectinIvermectin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

The Place of Ivermectin in the Management of Covid-19: State of the Evidence

Babalola et al., Medical Research Archives, doi:10.18103/mra.v11i4.3778
Apr 2023  
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 102 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of the clinical and epidemiological evidence of efficacy, in vitro and animal studies, and the mechanisms of action of ivermectin for COVID-19.
Babalola et al., 25 Apr 2023, peer-reviewed, 2 authors. Contact:
This PaperIvermectinAll
AI generated summary. Current AI models can provide useful summaries for non-experts, but may be inaccurate and have limited ability to analyze larger context such as the entire evidence base for ivermectin.
  • Ivermectin is an effective and safe treatment for COVID-19.
  • It can reduce the risk of hospitalization, death, and delayed viral clearance in patients with COVID-19.
  • It should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with COVID-19, especially in areas where vaccines are unavailable or undesirable.
  • Ivermectin is a repurposed drug that has been shown to be effective in the treatment and prevention of COVID-19.
  • In vitro studies have shown that ivermectin can inhibit the replication of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
  • In vivo studies have shown that ivermectin can reduce the severity of COVID-19 symptoms and improve survival rates.
  • A meta-analysis of clinical trials has shown that ivermectin can reduce the risk of hospitalization, death, and delayed viral clearance in patients with COVID-19.
  • The dosage of ivermectin used for the treatment of COVID-19 varies, but doses of 200-400 μg/kg twice weekly or daily for 5 consecutive days have been shown to be effective.
  • Ivermectin is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it is important to note that it can interact with other medications.
  • Ivermectin is an effective and safe treatment for COVID-19. It should be considered as a first-line treatment for patients with COVID-19, especially in areas where vaccines are unavailable or undesirable.

Here are some additional details from the article:

  • Ivermectin is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug that has been used for decades to treat a variety of parasitic infections.
  • Ivermectin is thought to work against COVID-19 by inhibiting the replication of the virus and by reducing inflammation.
  • Ivermectin is generally safe and well-tolerated, but it is important to note that it can interact with other medications.
  • Ivermectin is not a cure for COVID-19, but it can help to reduce the severity of the disease and improve survival rates.
The Place of Ivermectin in the Management of Covid-19: State of the Evidence
PhD Ajayi A A Md
Background and aims. The covid 19 pandemic necessitated the use of old, repurposed, and new drugs, in addition to vaccines and public health measures. There are still many controversies about the efficacy and impact of some of the medications used, which need further elucidation. We review the pharmacological properties and the place of the repurposed drug, Ivermectin (IVM) in the prophylaxis and treatment of SARS -CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2.) infection or Covid 19 disease. Major findings: in-vitro, in-vivo, and human studies In vitro studies in Vero/hSlam cells caused a 99.98 % inhibition of SARS -Cov-2 (5000-fold) within 48 hours. The IC50 (half maximal inhibitory concentration) for this virucidal action was 2.8μM, which was thought unattainable in humans in-vivo. Thus, there was initial skepticism on pharmacokinetic grounds as to possible efficacy of IVM in humans with Covid 19. There are, however, a multiplicity of anti-covid 19 mechanisms, beyond mere anti-viral effects, such as blockade of ACE2 receptor viral entry, and the anti-cytokine and anti-inflammatory effects of IVM. IVM has a long half-life of 18 -24 hours, Mean Residence Time (MRT) of 3.4 days and a preferential site of lung accumulation. In-vivo studies in Syrian Golden hamsters confirmed the symptomatic, antiinflammatory, anti-cytokine, histopathological and survival benefit of IVM, which was more manifest in female animals. In a January 2023 meta-analysis of studies (s) in total number of patients (n) for various parameters (p), the reduction in risk relative to placebo or controls were as follows: 1. Overall improvement (s= 95) (n= 134,554) was 62% [95%CI 54-69]. 2. Mortality (s=48) (n=120,000) there was 51% reduction [95%CI 37-62]. 3. Hospitalization (s=29) (n = 44, 784), there was 34% reduction [ 95% CI 20-45]. 4. Viral clearance (s=20) (n= 3945) there was 45% reduction [95%CI 31-55]. 5. Prophylaxis (s=17) (n=19,764) showed 82% reduction [95%CI 73-88] 6 Randomised Control Trial (RCT) studies (s= 45) (n=2173) showed a 54 % mortality reduction [95% CI 39-65] In addition, IVM has been shown in studies to cause a rapid reversal of hypoxemia (SPO2 < 94%) and a rapid increase in SPO2, an effect exhibiting a gender dichotomy. (SPO2 is the percentage of the maximum carrying capacity of the blood). This effect on SPO2 has been attributed to IVM's reversal and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 virus induced hemagglutination. The dosage used for treatment of covid 19 varied widely within studies, but doses of 200-400 μg/kg twice weekly or daily for 5 consecutive days, caused significant viral clearance and clinical improvement, with minimal safety concerns. For prophylaxis, a dose of 200μg/kg for two consecutive days every 15 days was found effective in studies. Conclusion: This review provides powerful evidence that IVM is efficacious singly or as a part of a regimen for covid 19. IVM could potentially be combined with newer oral anti-covid 19 agents, such as..
Ahmed, Karim, Ross, A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness, International Journal of Infectious Diseases, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191.(https:/
Ajayi, Drugs Shown to Inhibit SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 Disease: Comparative Basic and Clinical Pharmacology of Molnupiravir and Ivermectin, Austin J Pharmacol Ther
Alam, Murshed, Gomes, Masud, Ivermectin as Pre-exposure Prophylaxis for COVID-19 among Healthcare Providers in a Selected Tertiary Hospital in Dhaka -An Observational Study, European Journal of Medical and Health Sciences, doi:10.24018/ejmed.2020.2.6.599
Annunziata, Coppola, Carannante, Simioli, Lanza, Home management of patients with moderate or severe respiratory failure secondary to COVID-19, using remote monitoring and oxygen with or without HFNC, Pathogens
Arshad, Pertinez, Box, Prioritization of Anti-SARS-Cov-2 drug repurposing opportunities based on plasma and target site concentrations derived from their established human pharmacokinetics, Clin Pharmacol Ther, doi:10.1002/cpt.1909
Babalola, Ajayi, Yunusa, Ndanusa, Ogedengbe et al., Ivermectin is associated with Increase in SPO 2 in Hypoxemic SARS-CoV-2 Patients: Pharmacodynamic Profile and Correlates, J Clin Chem Lab Med
Babalola, Bode, Ajayi, Alakaloko, Akase et al., Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: a randomized controlled double-blind, dose-response study in Lagos, QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, doi:10.1093/qjmed/hcab035
Behera, Patro, Padhy, Prophylactic Role of Ivermectin in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 Infection Among Healthcare Workers, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.16897
Behera, Patro, Singh, Chandanshive, Pradhan, Role of ivermectin in the prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection among healthcare workers in India: A matched case-control study, PLoS ONE, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0247163
Boschi, Scheim, Bancod, Militello, Bideau et al., SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein Induces Hemagglutination: Implications for COVID-19 Morbidities and Therapeutics and for Vaccine Adverse Effects, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, doi:10.3390/ijms232415480
Butler, Molnupiravir plus usual care versus usual care alone as early treatment for adults with COVID-19 at increased risk of adverse outcomes (PANORAMIC): an openlabel, platform-adaptive randomised controlled trial, The Lancet
Caly, Druce, Catton, Jans, Wagstaff et al., Ivermectin as a potential COVID-19 treatment from the pharmacokinetic point of view: antiviral levels are not likely attainable with known dosing regimens, Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787
Canga, Prieto, Liébana, Martínez, Vega et al., The pharmacokinetics and interactions of ivermectin in humans--a mini-review, AAPS J, doi:10.1208/s12248-007-9000-9
Canga, Prieto, Liébana, Martínez, Vega et al., The pharmacokinetics and interactions of ivermectin in humans--a mini-review, AAPS J, doi:10.1208/s12248-007-9000-9
Carvallo, Study of the Efficacy and Safety of Topical Ivermectin + Iota-Carrageenan in the Prophylaxis against COVID-19 in Health Personnel, doi:10.31546/2633-8653
Coffeng, Stolk, Zouré, Veerman, Agblewonu et al., African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: modelestimated health impact and cost, PLoS Negl Trop Dis, doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002032
Crump, Ōmura, Ivermectin, drug' from Japan: the human use perspective, Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci, doi:10.2183/pjab.87.13
Dias De Melo, Lazarini, Marchio, Pineau, Lecuit et al., Attenuation of clinical and immunological outcomes during SARS-CoV-2 infection by ivermectin, Embo Molecular Medicine, doi:10.15252/Emmm202114122
Espitia-Hernandez, Effects of Ivermectinazithromycin-cholecalciferol combined therapy on COVID-19 infected patients: A proof of concept study
Gottlieb, Vaca, Paredes, Mera, Webb et al., Early Remdesivir to Prevent Progression to Severe Covid-19 in Outpatients, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2116846
Guerrero, Covid 10: The Ivermectin African enigma, Colomb Med, doi:10.25100/cm.v51i4.4613
Hay, Arnott, Ivermectin and coagulation: an in vitro study, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Hazan, Dave, Gunaratne, Dolai, Clancy et al., Effectiveness of ivermectin-based multidrug therapy in severely hypoxic, ambulatory COVID-19 patients, Future Microbiol
Hazan, Mmicrobiome -based hypothesis on Ivermectin Mechanisms in COVID -19 : Ivermectin feeds bifidobacteria to boost immunity
Hellwig, A COVID-19 prophylaxis? Lower incidence associated with prophylactic administration of ivermectin, Int J Antimicrob Agents, doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.106248
Justus, Ivermectin obliterates 97% of Delhi cases
Kerr, Cadegiani, Baldi, Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching, Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272
Kory, Meduri, Varon, Jose, Marik, Review of the Emerging Evidence Demonstrating the Efficacy of Ivermectin in the Prophylaxis and Treatment of COVID-19, American Journal of Therapeutics, doi:10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377
Krolewiecki, Lifschitz, Moragas, Travacio, Valentini et al., Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: A proof-of-concept randomized trial, EClinicalMedicine, doi:10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959
Lehrer, Rheinstein, Ivermectin Docks to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Receptor-binding Domain Attached to ACE2, Vivo, doi:10.21873/invivo.12134
Marathea, Mendez-Lopeza, Potential impact of 5 years of ivermectin mass drug administration on malaria outcomes in high burden countries, BMJ Global Health2021
Matsuyama, Kubli, Yoshinaga, An aberrant STAT pathway is central to COVID-19, Cell Death Differ, doi:10.1038/s41418-020-00633-7
Mohan, Tiwari, Suri, Single-dose oral ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): A single-centre randomized, placebo-controlled trial, Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy, doi:10.1016/j.jiac.2021.08.021
Najjar-Debbiny, Gronich, Weber, Effectiveness of Paxlovid in reducing severe coronavirus disease 2019 and mortality in highrisk patients, Clin Infect Dis, doi:10.1093/cid/ciac443€PMID:35653428
Osman, Farouk, Osman, Abdrabou, Longitudinal assessment of chest computerized tomography and oxygen saturation for patients with COVID-19, The Egyptian Journal of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine
Richards, Mcneeley, Bryan, Ivermectin and prothrombin time, The Lancet
Santin, Scheim, Mccullough, Yagisawa, Borody, Ivermectin: a multifaceted drug of Nobel prize-honored distinction with indicated efficacy against a new global scourge, COVID-19, New Microbes and New Infections
Scheim, A Deadly Embrace: Hemagglutination Mediated by SARS-CoV-2
Seth, Mas, Conod, Mueller, Siems et al., LongLasting WNT-TCF response blocking and epigenetic modifying activities of withanolide f in human cancer cells, PLoS One
Shah, Joyce, Plumb, Paxlovid is associated with decreased hospitalization rate among adults with Covid-19-United States, April-September 2022, MMWR MORB MORTAL WKLY REP, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7148e2
Shouman, for COVID-19 in Egypt: A Randomised Clinical Trial, doi:10.7860/JCDR/2020/46795.0000
Shuhan, Xinxin, Chen, Chi, Xiangchao et al., Anti-inflammatory effects of ivermectin in mouse model of allergic asthma, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-011-0307-8
Spagnuolo, Voarino, Tonelli, Galli, Poli et al., Impact of Remdesivir on SARS-CoV-2 Clearance in a Real-Life Setting: A Matched-Cohort Study, Drug Des Devel Ther, doi:10.2147/DDDT.S369473
Stone, Ndarukwa, Scheim, Dancis, Dancis et al., Changes in SpO2 on Room Air for 34 Severe COVID-19 Patients after Ivermectin-Based Combination Treatment: 62% Normalization within 24 Hours, Biologics, doi:10.3390/biologics2030015
Suputtamongkol, Avirutnan, Mairiang, Angkasekwinai, Niwattayakul et al., Ivermectin Accelerates Circulating Nonstructural Protein 1 (NS1) Clearance in Adult Dengue Patients: A Combined Phase 2/3
Thacker, The covid-19 lab leak hypothesis: did the media fall victim to a misinformation campaign?, BMJ2021, doi:10.1136/bmj.n1656
Thairu, Babalola, Ajayi, A Comparison of Ivermectin and Non Ivermectin Based Regimen for COVID-19 in Abuja: Effects on Virus Clearance, Days-todischarge and Mortality, Journal of Pharmaceutical Research International, doi:10.9734/jpri/2022/v34i44A36328
Venco, Mccall, Guerrero, Genchi, Efficacy of long-term monthly administration of ivermectin on the progress of naturally acquired heartworm infections in dogs, Vet Parasitol, doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2004.06.024
Wagstaff, Ivermectin Global Summit
Whitworth, Hay, Mcnicholas, Morgan, Maude et al., Coagulation abnormalities and ivermectin, Ann Trop Med Parasitol
Ya'qoub, Elgendy, Pepine, Sex and gender differences in COVID-19: More to be learned!, Am Heart J Plus, doi:10.1016/j.ahjo.2021.100011
Yan, Ci, Chen, Anti-Inflammatory effects of ivermectin in mouse model of allergic asthma, Inflamm Res
Yang, Atkinson, Wang, Lee, Bogoyevitch et al., The broad spectrum antiviral ivermectin targets the host nuclear transport importin α/β1 heterodimer, Antivir Res
Zaidi, Dehgani-Mobaraki, The mechanisms of action of ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2-an extensive review, J Antibiot, doi:10.1038/s41429-021-00491-6
Zhang, Song, Ci, Ivermectin inhibits LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and improves LPS-induced survival in mice, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-008-8007-
Zhang, Song, Ci, Ju, Li, Ivermectin Inhibits LPS-induced Production of Inflammatory Cytokines and Improves LPSinduced Survival in Mice, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-008-8007-8
Zou, Peng, Shu, Zhao, Lan et al., Antiviral Efficacy and Safety of Molnupiravir Against Omicron Variant Infection: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial, Front Pharmacol, doi:10.3389/fphar.2022.939573
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop