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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 70% Improvement Relative Risk Hospitalization 67% Case 44% Ivermectin for COVID-19  Kerr et al.  Prophylaxis Is prophylaxis with ivermectin beneficial for COVID-19? PSM retrospective 159,561 patients in Brazil (Jul - Dec 2020) Lower mortality (p<0.0001) and hospitalization (p<0.0001) Kerr et al., Cureus, December 2021 Favors ivermectin Favors control

Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching

Kerr et al., Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272 (date from preprint)
Dec 2021  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 102 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
PSM retrospective 220,517 patients in Brazil,133,051 taking ivermectin as part of a citywide prophylaxis program, showing significantly lower hospitalization and mortality with treatment.
Additional results are presented here:, including improved efficacy with analysis based on irregular/regular use, and a strong dose-response relationship.
Confirmation from independent analysis of the raw data:
See Mills regarding
This is the 70th of 102 COVID-19 controlled studies for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 560 quintillion).
49 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.00000038.
risk of death, 70.0% lower, RR 0.30, p < 0.001, treatment 25 of 3,034 (0.8%), control 79 of 3,034 (2.6%), NNT 56, adjusted per study, multivariate linear regression, propensity score matching.
risk of hospitalization, 67.0% lower, RR 0.33, p < 0.001, treatment 44 of 3,034 (1.5%), control 99 of 3,034 (3.3%), adjusted per study, multivariate linear regression, propensity score matching.
risk of case, 44.5% lower, RR 0.56, p < 0.001, treatment 4,197 of 113,845 (3.7%), control 3,034 of 45,716 (6.6%), NNT 34.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Kerr et al., 11 Dec 2021, retrospective, propensity score matching, Brazil, peer-reviewed, 9 authors, study period July 2020 - December 2020, dosage 200μg/kg days 1, 2, 16, 17, 0.2mg/kg/day for 2 days every 15 days.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Ivermectin Prophylaxis Used for COVID-19: A Citywide, Prospective, Observational Study of 223,128 Subjects Using Propensity Score Matching
Lucy Kerr, Flavio A Cadegiani, Fernando Baldi, Raysildo B Lobo, Washington Luiz O Assagra, Fernando Carlos Proença, Pierre Kory, Jennifer A Hibberd, Juan J Chamie-Quintero
Cureus, doi:10.7759/cureus.21272
Background: Ivermectin has demonstrated different mechanisms of action that potentially protect from both coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection and COVID-19-related comorbidities. Based on the studies suggesting efficacy in prophylaxis combined with the known safety profile of ivermectin, a citywide prevention program using ivermectin for COVID-19 was implemented in Itajaí, a southern city in Brazil in the state of Santa Catarina. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of regular ivermectin use on subsequent COVID-19 infection and mortality rates. Materials and methods: We analyzed data from a prospective, observational study of the citywide COVID-19 prevention with ivermectin program, which was conducted between July 2020 and December 2020 in Itajaí, Brazil. Study design, institutional review board approval, and analysis of registry data occurred after completion of the program. The program consisted of inviting the entire population of Itajaí to a medical visit to enroll in the program and to compile baseline, personal, demographic, and medical information. In the absence of contraindications, ivermectin was offered as an optional treatment to be taken for two consecutive days every 15 days at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg/day. In cases where a participating citizen of Itajaí became ill with COVID-19, they were recommended not to use ivermectin or any other medication in early outpatient treatment. Clinical outcomes of infection, hospitalization, and death were automatically reported and entered into the registry in real time. Study analysis consisted of comparing ivermectin users with non-users using cohorts of infected patients propensity score-matched by age, sex, and comorbidities. COVID-19 infection and mortality rates were analyzed with and without the use of propensity score matching (PSM). Results: Of the 223,128 citizens of Itajaí considered for the study, a total of 159,561 subjects were included in the analysis: 113,845 (71.3%) regular ivermectin users and 45,716 (23.3%) non-users. Of these, 4,311 ivermectin users were infected, among which 4,197 were from the city of Itajaí (3.7% infection rate), and 3,034 non-users (from Itajaí) were infected (6.6% infection rate), with a 44% reduction in COVID-19 infection rate (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.53-0.58; p < 0.0001). Using PSM, two cohorts of 3,034 subjects suffering from COVID-19 infection were compared. The regular use of ivermectin led to a 68% reduction in COVID-19 mortality (25 [0.8%] versus 79 [2.6%] among ivermectin non-users; RR, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.20-0.49; p < 0.0001). When adjusted for residual variables, reduction in mortality rate was 70% (RR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.19-0.46; p < 0.0001). There was a 56% reduction in hospitalization rate (44 versus 99 hospitalizations among ivermectin users and non-users, respectively; RR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.31-0.63; p < 0.0001). After adjustment for residual variables, reduction in hospitalization..
Due to the well-established, long-term safety profile of ivermectin, with rare adverse effects, the absence of proven therapeutic options to prevent death caused by COVID-19, and lack of effectiveness of vaccines in real-life all-cause mortality analyses to date, we recommend that ivermectin be considered as a preventive strategy, in particular for those at a higher risk of complications from COVID-19 or at higher risk of contracting the illness, not as a substitute for COVID-19 vaccines, but as an additional tool, particularly during periods of high transmission rates. Conclusions In a citywide ivermectin program with prophylactic, optional ivermectin use for COVID-19, ivermectin was associated with significantly reduced COVID-19 infection, hospitalization, and death rates from COVID-19. Appendices Table of contents STROBE checklist Protocol modification for the calculation of infection rates Previously, we had considered the full population of Itajaí as the source for the calculation of ivermectin non-users, which falsely raised the number of non-users and, consequently, falsely reduced the infection rate among ivermectin non-users. We also excluded subjects below 18 years old and participating subjects from other cities, since their outcomes would not be accounted for in the statistics of the city of Itajaí. Figure 4 summarizes the modifications.
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