Analgesics
Antiandrogens
Antihistamines
Azvudine
Bromhexine
Budesonide
Colchicine
Conv. Plasma
Curcumin
Famotidine
Favipiravir
Fluvoxamine
Hydroxychlor..
Ivermectin
Lifestyle
Melatonin
Metformin
Minerals
Molnupiravir
Monoclonals
Naso/orophar..
Nigella Sativa
Nitazoxanide
Paxlovid
Quercetin
Remdesivir
Thermotherapy
Vitamins
More

Other
Feedback
Home
Top
Abstract
All ivermectin studies
Meta analysis
 
Feedback
Home
next
study
previous
study
c19ivm.org COVID-19 treatment researchIvermectinIvermectin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Antihistamines Meta
Azvudine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Bromhexine Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Curcumin Meta Paxlovid Meta
Famotidine Meta Quercetin Meta
Favipiravir Meta Remdesivir Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Minimum manufacturing costs, national prices and estimated global availability of new repurposed therapies for COVID-19

Wang et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147
Jun 2021  
  Post
  Facebook
Share
  Source   PDF   All Studies   Meta AnalysisMeta
Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 23 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19ivm.org
Analysis of the manufacturing cost of several COVID-19 medications, showing a cost of $0.55 per course of ivermectin, including excipients, formulation, tax, and profit.
Reviews covering ivermectin for COVID-19 include1-41.
Wang et al., 3 Jun 2021, preprint, 4 authors.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Minimum manufacturing costs, national prices and estimated global availability of new repurposed therapies for COVID-19
Junzheng Wang, Jacob Levi, Leah Ellis, Dr Andrew Hill
doi:10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147
Background Currently, only dexamethasone, tocilizumab and sarilumab have conclusively been shown to reduce mortality of COVID-19. Safe and effective treatments will need to be both affordable and widely available globally to be used alongside vaccination programmes. This analysis will estimate and compare potential generic minimum costs of a selection of approved COVID-19 drug candidates with available international list prices. Methods: We searched for repurposed drugs that have been approved by at least one of the WHO, FDA or NICE, or at least given emergency use authorisation or recommended for off-label prescription. Drug prices were searched for, for dexamethasone, budesonide, baricitinib, tocilizumab, casirivimab and imdevimab, and sarilumab using active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) data extracted from global shipping records. This was compared with national pricing data from a range of low, medium, and high-income countries. Annual API export volumes from India were used to estimate the current availability of each drug. Results: Repurposed therapies can be generically manufactured for some treatments at
Conflicts of interest: None to declare.
References
Ahlqvist, Mcgeough, Senanayake, Armstrong, Yadaw et al., Progress Toward a Large-Scale Synthesis of Molnupiravir (MK-4482, EIDD-2801) from Cytidine, ACS Omega, doi:10.1021/acsomega.1c00772
Barber, Dzintars, Estimated cost-based generic prices for molnupiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 infection
Bhuyan, In India, black markets for tocilizumab spring up as demand for the Covid-19 drug surges
Eaton, Covid-19: WHO warns against "vaccine nationalism" or face further virus mutations, BMJ, doi:10.1136/bmj.n292
Gotham, Barber, Hill, Estimation of cost-based prices for injectable medicines in the WHO Essential Medicines List, BMJ Open
Group, Yu, Bafadhel, Dorward, Hayward et al., Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in people at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the community: interim analyses from the PRINCIPLE trial, doi:10.1101/2021.04.10.21254672
Hill, Barber, Gotham, Estimated costs of production and potential prices for the WHO Essential Medicines List, BMJ Global Health
Hill, Garratt, Levi, Falconer, Ellis et al., Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Hill, Simmons, Gotham, Rapid reductions in prices for generic sofosbuvir and daclatasvir to treat hepatitis C, J Virus Erad
Hill, Wang, Levi, Minimum costs to manufacture new treatments for COVID-19
Horby, Azithromycin in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00149-5
Horby, Casirivimab and imdevimab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label
Horby, Colchicine in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label
Horby, Effect of Hydroxychloroquine in Hospitalized Patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2022926
Horby, Lopinavir-ritonavir in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32013-4
Investigators, Gordon, Mouncey, Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2100433
Kalil, Patterson, Mehta, Baricitinib plus remdesivir for hospitalized adults with Covid-19, New England Journal of Medicine
Khan, Stewart, Fabbri, Systematic review and meta-analysis of anakinra, sarilumab, siltuximab and tocilizumab for COVID-19, Thorax. Published Online First, doi:10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215266
Klutz, Holtmann, Lobedann, Cost evaluation of antibody production processes in different operation modes, Chemical Engineering Science
Love, The production of generic drugs in India, BMJ
Mahase, Covid-19: Molnupiravir reduces risk of hospital admission or death by 50% in patients at risk, MSD reports, BMJ
Moon, Jambert, Childs, A win-win solution?: A critical analysis of tiered pricing to improve access to medicines in developing countries, Global Health, doi:10.1186/1744-8603-7-39
Mullard, Flooded by the torrent: the COVID-19 drug pipeline, Lancet, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30894-1
New, Revise Biosimilar Guidelines, Scientists Demand; WHO Says Not Now
Pan, Repurposed Antiviral Drugs for Covid-19 -Interim WHO Solidarity Trial Results, N Engl J Med, doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2023184
Popp, Stegemann, Metzendorf, Gould, Kranke et al., Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, doi:10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2
Ramakrishnan, Jr, Langford, Mahdi, Jeffers et al., Inhaled in the treatment of early COVID-19 (STOIC): a phase 2, open-label, randomised controlled trial, Lancet Respiratory Medicine
Recovery Collaborative, Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19, New England Journal of Medicine
Simoens, Vulto, A health economic guide to market access of biosimilars, Expert Opin Biol Ther, doi:10.1080/14712598.2021.1849132
Stebbing, Phelan, Griffin, COVID-19: combining antiviral and antiinflammatory treatments, Lancet Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30132-8
Tardif, Bouabdallaoui, Allier, randomised, double-blinded, adaptive, placebocontrolled, multicentre trial
Weinreich, Sivapalasingam, Norton, Ali, Gao et al., REGEN-COV antibody cocktail clinical outcomes study in Covid-19 outpatients
Wire, Governments Spent at Least €93bn on COVID-19 Vaccines and Therapeutics During the Last 11 Months
{ 'institution': [{'name': 'medRxiv'}], 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2024, 3, 1]], 'date-time': '2024-03-01T23:52:47Z', 'timestamp': 1709337167721}, 'posted': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 3]]}, 'group-title': 'Health Economics', 'reference-count': 49, 'publisher': 'Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory', 'content-domain': {'domain': [], 'crossmark-restriction': False}, 'accepted': {'date-parts': [[2021, 10, 18]]}, 'abstract': '<jats:title>Abstract</jats:title><jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Currently, ' 'only dexamethasone, tocilizumab and sarilumab have conclusively been shown to reduce ' 'mortality of COVID-19. Safe and effective treatments will need to be both affordable and ' 'widely available globally to be used alongside vaccination programmes. This analysis will ' 'estimate and compare potential generic minimum costs of a selection of approved COVID-19 drug ' 'candidates with available international list ' 'prices.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We searched for ' 'repurposed drugs that have been approved by at least one of the WHO, FDA or NICE, or at least ' 'given emergency use authorisation or recommended for off-label prescription. Drug prices were ' 'searched for, for dexamethasone, budesonide, baricitinib, tocilizumab, casirivimab and ' 'imdevimab, and sarilumab using active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) data extracted from ' 'global shipping records. This was compared with national pricing data from a range of low, ' 'medium, and high-income countries. Annual API export volumes from India were used to estimate ' 'the current availability of each ' 'drug.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Repurposed ' 'therapies can be generically manufactured for some treatments at very low per-course costs, ' 'ranging from $2.58 for IV dexamethasone (or $0.19 orally) and $4.34 for inhaled budesonide. ' 'No export price data was available for baricitinib, tocilizumab, casirivimab and imdevimab or ' 'sarilumab, but courses of these treatments are priced highly, ranging from $6.67 for ' 'baricitinib to $875.5 for sarilumab. When comparing international list prices, we found wide ' 'variations between ' 'countries.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title><jats:p>Successful ' 'management of COVID-19 will require equitable access to treatment for all populations, not ' 'just those able to pay high prices. Dexamethasone and budesonide are widely available and ' 'affordable, whilst monoclonal antibodies and IV treatment courses are more ' 'expensive.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Key Points</jats:title><jats:list ' 'list-type="bullet"><jats:list-item><jats:p>Re-purposed drugs must be affordable worldwide to ' 'compliment COVID-19 vaccine ' 'programmes.</jats:p></jats:list-item><jats:list-item><jats:p>Estimated costs/course were: ' 'dexamethasone (Oral $0.22, IV $2.58), budesonide ($4.34), baricitnib ($6.67), tocilizumab ' '($410.59), sarilumab ($875.70). Casirivimab and imdevimab = no data ' 'available.</jats:p></jats:list-item><jats:list-item><jats:p>High drug prices will limit ' 'access.</jats:p></jats:list-item></jats:list></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147', 'type': 'posted-content', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 4]], 'date-time': '2021-06-04T03:25:14Z', 'timestamp': 1622777114000}, 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 2, 'title': 'Minimum manufacturing costs, national prices and estimated global availability of new repurposed ' 'therapies for COVID-19', 'prefix': '10.1101', 'author': [ { 'ORCID': 'http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7635-9461', 'authenticated-orcid': False, 'given': 'Junzheng', 'family': 'Wang', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Jacob', 'family': 'Levi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Leah', 'family': 'Ellis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Andrew', 'family': 'Hill', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '246', 'reference': [ { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n292'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2055-6640(20)30018-2'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2022926'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2023184'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)32013-4'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00149-5'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'RECOVERY Collaborative Group. Horby P et al. Colchicine in patients ' 'admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, controlled, ' 'open-label, platform trial. [Preprint]. MedRxiv. 18th May 2021. doi: ' 'https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.18.21257267', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.05.18.21257267'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00222-8'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Hill A , Garratt A , Levi J , Falconer J , Ellis L , McCann K et al. ' 'Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection. [Revised manuscript]. Open Forum Infectious Diseases. 2021', 'DOI': '10.1093/ofid/ofab358'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1002/14651858.CD015017.pub2'}, { 'issue': '9', 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '795', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2031994', 'article-title': 'Baricitinib plus remdesivir for hospitalized adults with Covid-19', 'volume': '384', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'New England Journal of Medicine'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.12', 'unstructured': 'US Food and Drug Administration. Coronavirus (COVID-19) update: FDA ' 'authorizes drug combination for treatment of COVID-19. [Press Release]. ' '19th November 2020. Available from: ' 'https://www.fda.gov/news-events/press-announcements/coronavirus-covid-19-update-fda-authorizes-drug-combination-treatment-covid-19 ' '[Accessed 01/10/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n2422'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'RECOVERY Collaborative Group, Horby P et al. Casirivimab and imdevimab ' 'in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): a randomised, ' 'controlled, open-label, platform trial. [Preprint]. MedRxiv.16th June ' '2021. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.15.21258542', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.06.15.21258542'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Weinreich DM , Sivapalasingam S , Norton T , Ali S , Gao H , Bhore R , ' 'et al. REGEN-COV antibody cocktail clinical outcomes study in Covid-19 ' 'outpatients. [Preprint]. MedRxiv. 6th July 2021. doi: ' 'https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.05.19.21257469', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.05.19.21257469'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.16', 'unstructured': 'National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). COVID-19 rapid ' 'guideline: Managing COVID-19. Section 7.2: Casirivimab and imdevimab - ' 'hospital use. Version 13.2 published on 13.10.2021. Available from ' 'https://files.magicapp.org/guideline/ee9a60f9-6475-4f1c-9a31-d8046a513991/published_guideline_5679-13_2.pdf ' '[Accessed 14/10/2021].'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2100433'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.18', 'first-page': '693', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'RECOVERY Collaborative Group', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with Covid-19 New England ' 'Journal of Medicine'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.19', 'unstructured': 'Panjiva Database. Available from: https://panjiva.com [Accessed ' '10/04/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.d1694'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjopen-2018-027780'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2213-2600(21)00160-0'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'PRINCIPLE Collaborative Group, Yu L-M , Bafadhel M , Dorward J , Hayward ' 'G , Saville BR , Gbinigie O et al. Inhaled budesonide for COVID-19 in ' 'people at higher risk of adverse outcomes in the community: interim ' 'analyses from the PRINCIPLE trial. [Preprint]. 12th April 2021. Medrxiv. ' 'https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.04.10.21254672', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.04.10.21254672'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Klutz S , Holtmann L , Lobedann M et al. Cost evaluation of antibody ' 'production processes in different operation modes. Chemical Engineering ' 'Science, 141, 63–74.', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ces.2015.10.029'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.25', 'unstructured': 'Bhuyan A. In India, black markets for tocilizumab spring up as demand ' 'for the Covid-19 drug surges. Scroll.in. 7th July 2021. Available from ' 'https://scroll.in/article/966644/in-india-black-markets-for-tocilizumab-spring-up-as-demand-for-the-covid-19-drug-surges ' '[Accessed 10/07/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.26', 'unstructured': 'National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). COVID-19 ' 'prescribing briefing: corticosteroids. February 2021. Available from: ' 'https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/ng159/resources/covid19-prescribing-briefing-corticosteroids-pdf-8839913581 ' '[Accessed 10/02/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.27', 'unstructured': 'Randomised Evaluation of COVID-19 Therapy (RECOVERY) Trial Protocol. ' 'Version 7.0. 18th June 2020. Available from: ' 'https://www.recoverytrial.net/files/recovery-protocol-v7-0-2020-06-18.pdf ' '[Accessed 10/02/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.28', 'unstructured': 'Department of Health and Social Care. COVID-19 Therapeutic Alert: ' 'Interleukin-6 inhibitors (tocilizumab or sarilumab) for patients ' 'admitted to ICU with COVID-19 pneumonia (adults)Reference ' 'CEM/CMO/2021/001. 8th January 2021. Available from: ' 'https://www.cas.mhra.gov.uk/ViewandAcknowledgment/ViewAlert.aspx?AlertID=103134 ' '[Accessed 10/03/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S2055-6640(20)30691-9'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1186/1744-8603-7-39'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'United Nation Secretary General’s High-Level Panel on Access to ' 'Medicines. Report of the United Nation Secretary General’s High-Level ' 'Panel on Access to Medicines: Promoting innovation and access to health ' 'technologies. 14th September 2016. p. 22. Available from: ' 'http://www.unsgaccessmeds.org/final-report. [Accessed 10/04/2021]', 'DOI': '10.1590/1413-81232017228.16262017'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.32', 'unstructured': 'World Trade Organisation, Council for Trade-Related Aspects of ' 'Intellectual Property Rights. Waiver from certain provisions of the ' 'TRIPS agreement for the prevention, containment and treatment of ' 'COVID-19 -Communication from India and South Africa. 2nd October 2020. ' 'IP/C/W/669. Available from ' 'https://docs.wto.org/dol2fe/Pages/SS/directdoc.aspx?filename=q:/IP/C/W669.pdf&Open=True ' '[Accessed 10/04/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-215266'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.34', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organisation. Therapeutics and COVID-19: living guideline. ' '31st March 2021. Available from: ' 'https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/WHO-2019-nCoV-therapeutics-2021.1 ' '[Accessed 01/04/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.35', 'unstructured': 'ThePharmaLetter. US govt procuring $1.2 billion of Merck’s COVID-19 ' 'candidate. 9th June 2021. Available from ' 'https://www.thepharmaletter.com/article/us-govt-procuring-1-2-billion-of-merck-s-covid-19-candidate ' '[Accessed 01/07/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000571'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.37', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organisation. Commitment and call to action: Global ' 'collaboration to accelerate new COVID-19 health technologies. 24th April ' '2020. [Statement]. Available from: ' 'https://www.who.int/news-room/detail/24-04-2020-commitment-and-call-to-action-global-collaboration-to-accelerate-new-covid-19-health-technologies ' '[Accessed 10/03/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30894-1'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.39', 'unstructured': 'Institute of Medicine (US) Forum on Medical and Public Health ' 'Preparedness for Catastrophic Events. Medical Countermeasures ' 'Dispensing: Emergency Use Authorization and the Postal Model, Workshop ' 'Summary. Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US); 2010. Emergency ' 'Use Authorization. Available from: ' 'https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK53122 [Accessed 10/03/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.40', 'unstructured': 'Business Wire. Governments Spent at Least €93bn on COVID-19 Vaccines and ' 'Therapeutics During the Last 11 Months. 11th January 2021. Available ' 'from: https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20210110005098/en [Accessed ' '10/03/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.41', 'unstructured': 'Barber M , Dzintars G. Estimated cost-based generic prices for ' 'molnupiravir for the treatment of COVID-19 infection. 1st October 2021. ' 'Available from ' 'https://scholar.harvard.edu/melissabarber/publications/estimated-cost-based-generic-prices-molnupiravir-treatment-covid-19 ' '[Accessed 10/10/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1021/acsomega.1c00772'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1080/14712598.2021.1849132'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.44', 'unstructured': 'Association for Accessible Medicines. 2020 Generic Drug & Biosimilars ' 'Access & Savings in the U.S. Report. 2020. Available from ' 'https://accessiblemeds.org/sites/default/files/2020-09/AAM-2020-Generics-Biosimilars-Access-Savings-Report-US-Web.pdf ' '[Accessed 10/04/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.45', 'unstructured': 'New W. Revise Biosimilar Guidelines, Scientists Demand; WHO Says Not ' 'Now. 25th April 2019. Health Policy Watch. Available from ' 'https://healthpolicy-watch.news/revise-biosimilar-guidelines-scientists-demand-who-says-not-now/ ' '[Accessed 10/04/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.46', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30132-8'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.47', 'unstructured': 'US Food and Drugs Administration. Emergency Use Authorization 099. 24th ' 'June 2021. [Letter]. Available from ' 'https://www.fda.gov/media/150319/download [Accessed 10/10/2021]'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.48', 'unstructured': 'National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Treatments ' 'being monitored by RAPID C-19. Available from ' 'https://www.nice.org.uk/covid-19/rapid-c-19-treatments-currently-monitored. ' '[Accessed 10/10/2021].'}, { 'key': '2021102011301112000_2021.06.01.21258147v3.49', 'unstructured': 'US Food and Drugs Administration. Letter to Regeneron Inc. 21st November ' '2020. [Letter]. Available from ' 'https://www.fda.gov/media/143891/download. [Accessed 10/10/2021].'}], 'container-title': [], 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://syndication.highwire.org/content/doi/10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 12, 29]], 'date-time': '2022-12-29T19:26:22Z', 'timestamp': 1672341982000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'http://medrxiv.org/lookup/doi/10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 3]]}, 'references-count': 49, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/2021.06.01.21258147', 'relation': { 'is-preprint-of': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.1093/ofid/ofab581', 'asserted-by': 'subject'}]}, 'subject': [], 'published': {'date-parts': [[2021, 6, 3]]}, 'subtype': 'preprint'}
Loading..
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop   
Submit