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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials

Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708, IRCT20111224008507N4
Jun 2022  
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Mortality -5% Improvement Relative Risk ICU admission -9% Hospitalization -36% Recovery -2% post-hoc primary Recovery, cough 13% Recovery, tachypnea 17% Viral clearance -23% Ivermectin  Rezai et al.  EARLY TREATMENT  DB RCT Is early treatment with ivermectin beneficial for COVID-19? Double-blind RCT 549 patients in Iran (February - August 2021) Multiple critical issues, see analysis c19ivm.org Rezai et al., Frontiers in Medicine, Jun 2022 Favorsivermectin Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 23 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19ivm.org
RCT 549 low risk outpatients in Iran. Reported outcomes are very different from the pre-specified outcomes1. The inpatient trial is listed separately.
The pre-specified primary clinical outcome was not reported. The reported components of this outcome are both positive.
Pre-specified outcomes (3 not reported)1:
- reduction in persistent cough and tachypnea and O2 saturation above 94% - not reported
- negative PCR - reported
- main complaints recovery time - not reported (only individual symptoms)
- hospitalization - reported
- time to hospitalization - not reported
- mortality - reported
- side effects - reported in only one patient (anomalous)
A new outcome "relative recovery" is reported but not mentioned in the trial registration. The reported percentages and RR do not match.
Authors include a researcher caught on video admitting that conclusions on ivermectin research were influenced by a funder2.
Most/many patients were also treated with famotidine, vitamin C, vitamin D, and zinc, limiting room for improvement.
Authors indicate bottles were identical, but tablets were only similar.
Ivermectin was obtained from Alborz Daru Co.
This is the 38th of 51 COVID-19 RCTs for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00000015.
This is the 87th of 104 COVID-19 controlled studies for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 1 sextillion).
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: multiple critical issues, see study page.
risk of death, 4.9% higher, RR 1.05, p = 1.00, treatment 1 of 268 (0.4%), control 1 of 281 (0.4%).
risk of ICU admission, 9.0% higher, RR 1.09, p = 0.95, treatment 268, control 281.
risk of hospitalization, 36.0% higher, RR 1.36, p = 0.41, treatment 268, control 281.
risk of no recovery, 2.0% higher, RR 1.02, p = 0.49, treatment 268, control 281, inverted to make RR<1 favor treatment, post-hoc primary outcome.
risk of no recovery, 13.2% lower, RR 0.87, p = 0.09, treatment mean 3.87 (±0.18) n=268, control mean 4.46 (±0.18) n=281, cough.
risk of no recovery, 16.7% lower, RR 0.83, p = 0.81, treatment mean 2.5 (±0.51) n=268, control mean 3.0 (±0.92) n=281, tachypnea.
risk of no viral clearance, 23.5% higher, RR 1.23, p = 0.16, treatment 268, control 281, inverted to make RR<1 favor treatment.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Rezai et al., 16 Jun 2022, Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial, placebo-controlled, Iran, peer-reviewed, mean age 35.5, 29 authors, study period 19 February, 2021 - 30 August, 2021, dosage 400μg/kg days 1-3, trial IRCT20111224008507N4. Contact: drmsrezaii@yahoo.com.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Fatemeh Ahangarkani, Andrew Hill, Leah Ellis, Manya Mirchandani, Alireza Davoudi, Gohar Eslami, Fatemeh Roozbeh, Farhang Babamahmoodi, Nima Rouhani, Ahmad Alikhani, Narges Najafi, Roya Ghasemian, Hossein Mehravaran, Azin Hajialibeig, Mohammad Reza Navaeifar, Leila Shahbaznejad, Golnar Rahimzadeh, Majid Saeedi, Reza Alizadeh-Navai, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Shahab Saeedi, Seyedeh-Kiana Razavi-Amoli, Shaghayegh Rezai, Fereshteh Rostami-Maskopaee, Fatemeh Hosseinzadeh, Faezeh Sadat Movahedi, John S Markowitz, Reza Valadan
Frontiers in Medicine, doi:10.3389/fmed.2022.919708
Background: Ivermectin which was widely considered as a potential treatment for COVID-19, showed uncertain clinical benefit in many clinical trials. Performing largescale clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in the midst of the pandemic, while difficult, has been urgently needed. Methods: We performed two large multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebocontrolled clinical trials evaluating the effectiveness of ivermectin in treating inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 infection. The intervention group received ivermectin, 0.4mg/kg of body weight per day for 3 days. In the control group, placebo tablets were used for 3 days. Results: Data for 609 inpatients and 549 outpatients were analyzed. In hospitalized patients, complete recovery was significantly higher in the ivermectin group (37%) compared to placebo group (28%; RR, 1.32 [95% CI, 1.04-1.66]; p-value = 0.02). On the other hand, the length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the ivermectin group with a mean of 7.98 ± 4.4 days compared to the placebo receiving group with a mean of 7.16 ± 3.2 days (RR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.15-1.45]; p-value = 0.02). In outpatients, the
ETHICS STATEMENT The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences (IR.MAZUMS.REC.1399.915 and IR.MAZUMS.REC.1399.869) and by the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials identifier (IRCT20111224008507N5 and IRCT20111224008507N4). Written informed consent to participate in this study was provided by the participants or their legal guardian/next of kin. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS MR contributed to the conception or design of the work. MR, FA, AHi, LE, and MMi contributed to the drafting and statistical analysis of the manuscript. All authors contributed toward the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data, critical revision of the manuscript, review and approval of the final version of the manuscript. SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL The Supplementary Material for this article can be found online at: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed. 2022.919708/full#supplementary-material Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Note: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not..
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{ 'indexed': {'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-06-16T10:43:09Z', 'timestamp': 1655376189005}, 'reference-count': 43, 'publisher': 'Frontiers Media SA', 'license': [ { 'start': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-06-16T00:00:00Z', 'timestamp': 1655337600000}, 'content-version': 'vor', 'delay-in-days': 0, 'URL': 'https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/'}], 'content-domain': {'domain': ['frontiersin.org'], 'crossmark-restriction': True}, 'abstract': '<jats:sec><jats:title>Background</jats:title><jats:p>Ivermectin which was widely considered ' 'as a potential treatment for COVID-19, showed uncertain clinical benefit in many clinical ' 'trials. Performing large-scale clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of this drug in ' 'the midst of the pandemic, while difficult, has been urgently ' 'needed.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Methods</jats:title><jats:p>We performed two ' 'large multicenter randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials evaluating the ' 'effectiveness of ivermectin in treating inpatients and outpatients with COVID-19 infection. ' 'The intervention group received ivermectin, 0.4mg/kg of body weight per day for 3 days. In ' 'the control group, placebo tablets were used for 3 ' 'days.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Results</jats:title><jats:p>Data for 609 ' 'inpatients and 549 outpatients were analyzed. In hospitalized patients, complete recovery was ' 'significantly higher in the ivermectin group (37%) compared to placebo group (28%; RR, 1.32 ' '[95% CI, 1.04–1.66]; <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.02). On the other hand, the ' 'length of hospital stay was significantly longer in the ivermectin group with a mean of 7.98 ' '± 4.4 days compared to the placebo receiving group with a mean of 7.16 ± 3.2 days (RR, 0.80 ' '[95% CI, 0.15–1.45]; <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.02). In outpatients, the mean ' 'duration of fever was significantly shorter (2.02 ± 0.11 days) in the ivermectin group versus ' '(2.41 ± 0.13 days) placebo group with <jats:italic>p</jats:italic> value = 0.020. On the day ' 'seventh of treatment, fever (<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.040), cough ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.019), and weakness ' '(<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.002) were significantly higher in the placebo group ' 'compared to the ivermectin group. Among all outpatients, 7% in ivermectin group and 5% in ' 'placebo group needed to be hospitalized (RR, 1.36 [95% CI, 0.65–2.84]; ' '<jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.41). Also, the result of RT-PCR on day five after ' 'treatment was negative for 26% of patients in the ivermectin group versus 32% in the placebo ' 'group (RR, 0.81 [95% CI, 0.60–1.09]; <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = ' '0.16).</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title><jats:p>Our data ' 'showed, ivermectin, compared with placebo, did not have a significant potential effect on ' 'clinical improvement, reduced admission in ICU, need for invasive ventilation, and death in ' 'hospitalized patients; likewise, no evidence was found to support the prescription of ' 'ivermectin on recovery, reduced hospitalization and increased negative RT-PCR assay for ' 'SARS-CoV-2 5 days after treatment in outpatients. Our findings do not support the use of ' 'ivermectin to treat mild to severe forms of ' 'COVID-19.</jats:p></jats:sec><jats:sec><jats:title>Clinical Trial ' 'Registration</jats:title><jats:p><jats:ext-link>www.irct.ir</jats:ext-link> ' 'IRCT20111224008507N5 and IRCT20111224008507N4.</jats:p></jats:sec>', 'DOI': '10.3389/fmed.2022.919708', 'type': 'journal-article', 'created': {'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-06-16T10:22:55Z', 'timestamp': 1655374975000}, 'update-policy': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/crossmark-policy', 'source': 'Crossref', 'is-referenced-by-count': 0, 'title': 'Non-effectiveness of Ivermectin on Inpatients and Outpatients With COVID-19; Results of Two ' 'Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trials', 'prefix': '10.3389', 'volume': '9', 'author': [ {'given': 'Mohammad Sadegh', 'family': 'Rezai', 'sequence': 'first', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 'Fatemeh', 'family': 'Ahangarkani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}, {'given': 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'author': 'Farne', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Ann Am Thorac Soc.'}, { 'key': 'B9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '7', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0041-1723086', 'article-title': 'Potential of CRISPR/CAS13 system in treatment and diagnosis of ' 'Covid-19.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Khodavirdipour', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Glob Med Genet.'}, { 'key': 'B10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Drug repurposing strategies for Covid-19.', 'author': 'Senanayake', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Future Drug Discov.', 'DOI': '10.4155/fdd-2020-0010'}, { 'key': 'B11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1479', 'DOI': '10.1007/s43440-020-00155-6', 'article-title': 'Drug repurposing approach to fight Covid-19.', 'volume': '72', 'author': 'Singh', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Pharmacol Rep.'}, { 'key': 'B12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '718786', 'DOI': '10.3389/fmicb.2022.718786', 'article-title': 'Potential of Bacillus Subtilis against SARS-CoV-2 – a sustainable drug ' 'development perspective.', 'volume': '13', 'author': 'Khodavirdipour', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Front Microbiol.'}, { 'key': 'B13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '295', 'DOI': '10.1080/13543776.2021.1861248', 'article-title': 'Repurposing drugs for the management of Covid-19.', 'volume': '31', 'author': 'Cusinato', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Exp Opin Ther Patents.'}, { 'key': 'B14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '78', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0041-1726461', 'article-title': 'Inclusion of cephalexin in Covid-19 treatment combinations may prevent ' 'lung involvement in mild infections: a case report with pharmacological ' 'genomics perspective.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Khodavirdipour', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Glob Med Genet.'}, { 'key': 'B15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '183', 'DOI': '10.1055/s-0041-1735538', 'article-title': 'Impact of SARS-CoV-2 genetic blueprints on the oral manifestation of ' 'Covid-19: a case report.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Khodavirdipour', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Glob Med Genet.'}, { 'key': 'B16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '166294', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.bbadis.2021.166294', 'article-title': 'Repositioning ivermectin for Covid-19 treatment: molecular mechanisms ' 'of action against SARS-CoV-2 replication.', 'volume': '1868', 'author': 'Low', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis.'}, { 'key': 'B17', 'first-page': '317', 'article-title': 'The multitargeted drug ivermectin: from an antiparasitic agent to a ' 'repositioned cancer drug.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Juarez', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'Am J Cancer Res.'}, { 'key': 'B18', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '823', 'DOI': '10.1126/science.6308762', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin: a potent new antiparasitic agent.', 'volume': '221', 'author': 'Campbell', 'year': '1983', 'journal-title': 'Science (New York, NY).'}, { 'key': 'B19', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '344', 'DOI': '10.1016/0035-9203(94)90110-4', 'article-title': 'Treatment of strongyloides stercoralis infection with ivermectin ' 'compared with albendazole: results of an open study of 60 cases.', 'volume': '88', 'author': 'Datry', 'year': '1994', 'journal-title': 'Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg.'}, { 'key': 'B20', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '104787', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787', 'article-title': 'The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'in vitro.', 'volume': '178', 'author': 'Caly', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Antivir Res.'}, { 'key': 'B21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100720', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100720', 'article-title': 'The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms ' 'and humoral response in patients with non-severe Covid-19: a pilot, ' 'double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial.', 'volume': '32', 'author': 'Chaccour', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine.'}, { 'key': 'B22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '354', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.016', 'article-title': 'Inhibitory effects of ivermectin on nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 ' 'production in LPS-stimulated raw 264.7 macrophages.', 'volume': '9', 'author': 'Zhang', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'Int Immunopharmacol.'}, { 'key': 'B23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '301', 'DOI': '10.1017/s0031182005009108', 'article-title': 'Immunomodulatory effect of various anti-parasitics: a review.', 'volume': '132', 'author': 'Sajid', 'year': '2006', 'journal-title': 'Parasitology.'}, { 'key': 'B24', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '13', 'DOI': '10.2183/pjab.87.13', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin, ‘wonder drug’ from Japan: the human use perspective.', 'volume': '87', 'author': 'Crump', 'year': '2011', 'journal-title': 'Proc Jpn Acad Ser B Phys Biol Sci.'}, { 'key': 'B25', 'first-page': '1', 'article-title': 'Global trends in clinical studies of ivermectin in Covid-19.', 'volume': '74', 'author': 'Yagisawa', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Jpn J Antibiot.'}, { 'key': 'B26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e434', 'DOI': '10.1097/mjt.0000000000001402', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of Covid-19 infection: a ' 'systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis to ' 'inform clinical guidelines.', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Bryant', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Am J Therap.'}, { 'key': 'B27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '440', 'DOI': '10.4103/1995-7645.327070', 'article-title': 'Efficacy and safety of ivermectin for Covid-19: a systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis.', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Singh', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Asian Pac J Trop Med.'}, { 'key': 'B28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1007', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.clinthera.2021.04.007', 'article-title': 'Effects of ivermectin in patients with Covid-19: a multicenter, ' 'double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial.', 'volume': '43', 'author': 'Shahbaznejad', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Clin Therap.'}, { 'key': 'B29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '60', 'DOI': '10.1038/s41429-021-00491-6', 'article-title': 'The mechanisms of action of ivermectin against SARS-CoV-2-an extensive ' 'review.', 'volume': '75', 'author': 'Zaidi', 'year': '2022', 'journal-title': 'J Antibiot.'}, { 'key': 'B30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'ofab358', 'DOI': '10.1093/ofid/ofab358', 'article-title': 'Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Hill', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Open Forum Infect Dis.'}, { 'key': 'B31', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '85', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.chest.2020.10.009', 'article-title': 'Use of ivermectin is associated with lower mortality in hospitalized ' 'patients with coronavirus disease 2019: the ivermectin in Covid ' 'Nineteen study.', 'volume': '159', 'author': 'Rajter', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Chest.'}, { 'key': 'B32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'A meta-analysis of mortality, need for ICU admission, use of mechanical ' 'ventilation and adverse effects with ivermectin use in Covid-19 ' 'patients.', 'author': 'Karale', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.04.30.21256415'}, { 'key': 'B33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1473', 'DOI': '10.1002/jmv.27469', 'article-title': 'Effectiveness and safety of ivermectin in Covid-19 patients: a ' 'prospective study at a safety-net hospital.', 'volume': '94', 'author': 'Ozer', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Med Virol.'}, { 'key': 'B34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1426', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2021.3071', 'article-title': 'Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults ' 'with mild Covid-19: a randomized clinical trial.', 'volume': '325', 'author': 'López-Medina', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'JAMA.'}, { 'key': 'B35', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin for the treatment of Covid-19: a systematic review and ' 'meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.', 'author': 'Roman', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'medRxiv', 'DOI': '10.1101/2021.05.21.21257595'}, { 'key': 'B36', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '100959', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959', 'article-title': 'Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with Covid-19: a ' 'proof-of-concept randomized trial.', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'Krolewiecki', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine.'}, { 'key': 'B37', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e0006020', 'DOI': '10.1371/journal.pntd.0006020', 'article-title': 'Safety and pharmacokinetic profile of fixed-dose ivermectin with an ' 'innovative 18mg tablet in healthy adult volunteers.', 'volume': '12', 'author': 'Muñoz', 'year': '2018', 'journal-title': 'PLoS Negl Trop Dis.'}, { 'key': 'B38', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'first-page': '11', 'DOI': '10.3329/imcjms.v14i2.52826', 'article-title': 'Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate covid-19 cases: a ' 'single-centre, open-label, randomised controlled study.', 'volume': '14', 'author': 'Podder', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'IMC J Med Sci.'}, { 'key': 'B39', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '63', 'DOI': '10.14744/ejmo.2021.16263', 'article-title': 'A comparative study on ivermectin-doxycycline and ' 'hydroxychloroquine-azithromycin therapy on COVID-19 patients.', 'volume': '5', 'author': 'Chowdhury', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'EJMO'}, { 'key': 'B40', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '635', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12879-021-06348-5', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with Covid-19 ' '(Ivercor-Covid19) a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'Vallejos', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMC Infect Dis.'}, { 'key': 'B41', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1', 'DOI': '10.1186/1475-2883-2-s1-s8', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin: does P-glycoprotein play a role in neurotoxicity?', 'volume': '2', 'author': 'Edwards', 'year': '2003', 'journal-title': 'Filaria J.'}, { 'key': 'B42', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '2197', 'DOI': '10.1056/nejmc2114907', 'article-title': 'Toxic effects from ivermectin use associated with prevention and ' 'treatment of Covid-19.', 'volume': '385', 'author': 'Temple', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med.'}, { 'key': 'B43', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1743', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jiac.2021.08.021', 'article-title': 'Single-dose oral ivermectin in mild and moderate COVID-19 (RIVET-COV): ' 'A single-centre randomized, placebo-controlled trial.', 'volume': '27', 'author': 'Mohan', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'J Infect Chemother.'}], 'container-title': 'Frontiers in Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2022.919708/full', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]], 'date-time': '2022-06-16T10:23:06Z', 'timestamp': 1655374986000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': {'primary': {'URL': 'https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmed.2022.919708/full'}}, 'subtitle': [], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]]}, 'references-count': 43, 'alternative-id': ['10.3389/fmed.2022.919708'], 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2022.919708', 'relation': {}, 'ISSN': ['2296-858X'], 'subject': ['General Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'Front. Med.', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 6, 16]]}}
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Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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