Conv. Plasma
Nigella Sativa

All ivermectin studies
Meta analysis
study COVID-19 treatment researchIvermectinIvermectin (more..)
Melatonin Meta
Metformin Meta
Azvudine Meta
Bromhexine Meta Molnupiravir Meta
Budesonide Meta
Colchicine Meta
Conv. Plasma Meta Nigella Sativa Meta
Curcumin Meta Nitazoxanide Meta
Famotidine Meta Paxlovid Meta
Favipiravir Meta Quercetin Meta
Fluvoxamine Meta Remdesivir Meta
Hydroxychlor.. Meta Thermotherapy Meta
Ivermectin Meta

All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   
0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 75% Improvement Relative Risk Ivermectin for COVID-19  Hill et al.  META ANALYSIS Favors ivermectin Favors control

Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection

Hill et al., Research Square, doi:10.21203/
Jan 2021  
  Source   PDF   All   Meta
Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 100 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Meta analysis of 18 ivermectin RCTs with 2,282 patients showing faster viral clearance (dose and duration dependent), improved clinical recovery, and lower hospitalization and mortality. In six RCTs of moderate or severe infection, there was a 75% reduction in mortality, RR 0.25 [0.12-0.52], p = 0.0002.
A documentary about the external influences changing the conclusions of this study, and the resulting negative impacts, can be found at
A sponsor reportedly required the conclusion of this paper to be changed against the wishes of the authors (to suggest that more trials should be done as opposed to the existing evidence being sufficient),, Reportedly, Unitaid had influence over the conclusions, See also
Note that one of the 18 studies in this analysis has since been withdrawn (Elgazzar).
7 meta analyses show significant improvements with ivermectin for mortality Bryant, Hariyanto, Kory, Lawrie, Nardelli, Zein, hospitalization Schwartz, recovery Kory, and cases Kory.
Currently there are 100 ivermectin for COVID-19 studies, showing 49% lower mortality [35‑60%], 29% lower ventilation [13‑42%], 38% lower ICU admission [14‑56%], 34% lower hospitalization [20‑45%], and 81% fewer cases [71‑87%].
risk of death, 75.0% lower, RR 0.25, p < 0.001.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Hill et al., 19 Jan 2021, preprint, 40 authors.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 infection
Dr Andrew Hill, Ahmed S Abdulamir, Sabeena Ahmed, Asma Asghar, Olufemi Emmanuel Babalola, Rabia Basri, Carlos Chaccour, Aijaz Zeeshan Khan Chachar, Abu Tauib Mohammed Chowdhury, Ahmed Elgazzar, Leah Ellis, Jonathan Falconer, Anna Garratt, Basma M Hany, Hashim A Hashim, Wasim Ul Haque, Arshad Hayat, Shuixiang He, Ramin Jamshidian, Wasif Ali Khan, Ravi Kirti, Alejandro Krolewiecki, Carlos Lanusse, Jacob Levi, Reaz Mahmud, Sermand Ahmed Mangat, Kaitlyn Mccann, Anant Mohan, Mortezza Shakshi Niaee, Nurullah Okumus, Victoria Pilkington, Chinmay Saha Podder, Ambar Qavi, Houssam Raad, Mohammaed Sadegh Rezai, Surapaneni Sasank, Veerapaneni Spoorthi, Tejas Suri, Junzheng Wang, Hannah Wentzel
Forum Infectious Diseases published a version of this preprint. The authors subsequently learned that one of the studies on which this analysis was based had been withdrawn due to fraudulent data. An expression of concern was issued on August 9, 2021.
Ahmed, Karim, Ross, Hossain, Clemens et al., A five day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may reduce the duration of illness, Int J Infect Dis, doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191
Arshad, Pertinez, Box, Tatham, Rajoli et al., Prioritization of Anti-SARS-Cov-2 Drug Repurposing Opportunities Based on Plasma and Target Site Concentrations Derived from their Established Human Pharmacokinetics, Clin Pharmacol Ther, doi:10.1002/cpt.1909
Asghar, Efficacy of Ivermectin in COVID-19
Babaloa, Ivermectin shows clinical benefits in mild to moderate COVID19: A randomised controlled double blind dose response study in Lagos, doi:10.1186/ISRCTN40302986
Babalola, None, medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2021.01.05.21249131
Caly, Druce, Catton, Jans, Wagstaff, The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, Antiviral Res, doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787
Canga, Prieto, Liébana, Martínez, Vega et al., The pharmacokinetics and interactions of ivermectin in humans--a mini-review, AAPS J, doi:10.1208/s12248-007-9000-9
Chaccour, Casellas, Blanco-Di Matteo, Pineda, Fernandez-Montero et al., The effect of early treatment with ivermectin on viral load, symptoms and humoral
Chachar, Khan, Asif, Khaqan, Basri, Effectiveness of ivermectin in SARS-CoV-2 / COVID-19 patients, International Journal of Sciences, doi:10.18483/ijSci.2378
Chowdhury, A randomised trial of Ivermectin-Doxycycline and Hydroxychloroquine-Azithromycin therapy on COVID19 patients, doi:10.21203/
Ci, Li, Yu, Zhang, Yu et al., Avermectin exerts anti-inflammatory effect by downregulating the nuclear transcription factor kappa-B and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation pathway, Fundam Clin Pharmacol, doi:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2009.00684.x
Clinicaltrials, Gov, Prophylaxis Covid-19 In Healthcare Agents By Intensive Treatment With Ivermectin And Iota-Carrageenan
Cottam, Maier, Manifava, Vaux, Chandra-Schoenfelder et al., Coronavirus nsp6 proteins generate autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum via an omegasome intermediate, Autophagy, doi:10.4161/auto.7.11.16642
De Melo, Lazarini, Larrous, Feige, Kergoat et al., Anti-COVID-19 efficacy of ivermectin in the golden hamster, bioRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.21.392639
Elgazzar, Hany, Youssef, Hafez, Moussa et al., Efficacy and safety of ivermectin for treatment and prophylaxis of COVID-19 pandemic
Hashim, Maulood, Rasheed, Fatak, Kabah et al., Controlled randomized clinical trial on using Ivermectin with doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq
Henry, De Oliveira, Benoit, Plebani, Lippi, Hematologic, biochemical and immune biomarker abnormalities associated with severe illness and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): a meta-analysis, Clin Chem Lab Med, doi:10.1515/cclm-2020-0369
Jermain, Hanafin, Cao, Lifschitz, Lanusse et al., Development of a Minimal Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model to Simulate Lung Exposure in Humans Following Oral Administration of Ivermectin for COVID-19 Drug Repurposing, J Pharm Sci, doi:10.1016/j.xphs.2020.08.024
Kirti, Low Low Low Low Low Low Good
Kirti, Roy, Pattadar, Raj, Agarwal et al., Ivermectin as a potential treatment for mild to moderate COVID-19: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial, doi:10.1101/2021.01.05.21249310
Kramer, Grandi, Passeri, Gianelli, Genchi et al., Evaluation of lung pathology in Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with doxycycline or a combination of doxycycline and ivermectin before administration of melarsomine dihydrochloride, Veterinary parasitology
Krolewiecki, Lifschitz, Moragas, Travacio, Valentini et al., Antiviral Effect of High-Dose Ivermectin in Adults with COVID-19: A Pilot Randomised, Controlled, Open Label, Multicentre Trial
Liu, Liang, Chen, Wang, Qu et al., Ivermectin induces autophagymediated cell death through the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway in glioma cells, Biosci Rep, doi:10.1042/BSR20192489
Navarro, Camprubí, Requena-Méndez, Buonfrate, Giorli et al., Safety of high-dose ivermectin: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Niaee, Gheibi, Namdar, Allami, Zolghadr et al., Invermctin as an adjunct treatment for hospitalized adult COVID-19 patients: a randomized, multi-center clinical trial
Okumus, Ivermectin for Severe COVID-19 management
Podder, Chowdhury, Sina, Haque, Outcome of ivermectin treated mild to moderate COVID-19 cases: a single-centre, open-label, randomized controlled study, IMC J Med Sci
Raad, In vivo use of ivermectin (IVR) for treatment for corona virus infected patients (COVID-19): a randomized controlled trial
Rezai, Effect of Ivermectin on COVID-19: A multicenter double-blind randomized clinical trial
Schmith, Zhou, Lohmer, The Approved Dose of Ivermectin Alone is not the Ideal Dose for the Treatment of COVID-19, Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Singh, Mittal, Gollapudi, Butzmann, Kumar et al., A meta-analysis of SARS-CoV-2 patients identifies the combinatorial significance of D-dimer, C-reactive protein, lymphocyte, and neutrophil values as a predictor of disease severity, International journal of laboratory hematology
Spoorthi, Utiilty of Ivermectin and Doxycycline combination for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2, IAIM
Stolberg, Lafraniere, Warning of Shortages, Researchers Look to Stretch Vaccine Supply
Tay, Poh, Rénia, Macary, Ng, The trinity of COVID-19: immunity, inflammation and intervention, Nat Rev Immunol, doi:10.1038/s41577-020-0311-8
The, Investigators, Interleukin-6 Receptor Antagonists in Critically Ill Patients with Covid-19 -Preliminary report, doi:10.1101/2021.01.07.21249390
Tzou, Tao, Nouhin, Coronavirus Antiviral Research Database (CoV-RDB): An Online Database Designed to Facilitate Comparisons between Candidate Anti-Coronavirus Compounds, Viruses, doi:10.3390/v12091006
Van Nguyen, Ferrand, Cohen-Boulakia, Martinez, Kapp et al., RCT studies on preventive measures and treatments for COVID-19
Ventre, Rozières, Lenief, Albert, Rossio et al., Topical ivermectin improves allergic skin inflammation, Allergy, doi:10.1111/all.13118
Wang, Gao, Dou, Chen, Li et al., Ivermectin induces PAK1-mediated cytostatic autophagy in breast cancer, Autophagy, doi:10.1080/15548627.2016.1231494
Who, WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard
Yan, Ci, Chen, Chen, Li et al., Anti-inflammatory effects of ivermectin in mouse model of allergic asthma, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-011-0307-8
Zhang, Song, Ci, Ju, Li, Ivermectin inhibits LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and improves LPS-induced survival in mice, Inflamm Res, doi:10.1007/s00011-008-8007-8
Zhang, Song, Xiong, Ci, Li et al., Inhibitory effects of ivermectin on nitric oxide and prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages, Int Immunopharmacol, doi:10.1016/j.intimp.2008.12.016
Zhu, Cong, Yu, Bresnahan, Shenk, Inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2 blocks human cytomegalovirus replication, Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, doi:10.1073/pnas.052713799
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Vaccines and treatments are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment, vaccine, or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
  or use drag and drop