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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality, IVM or albendaz.. 32% Improvement Relative Risk Ivermectin for COVID-19  Silva et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with ivermectin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 395 patients in Brazil (March - October 2020) Lower mortality with ivermectin (not stat. sig., p=0.57) Silva et al., Frontiers in Cellular an.., May 2022 Favors ivermectin Favors control

Clinical-Epidemiology Aspect of Inpatients With Moderate or Severe COVID-19 in a Brazilian Macroregion: Disease and Countermeasures

Silva et al., Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.899702
May 2022  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 102 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
4,000+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 395 hospitalized patients in Brazil, showing mortality HR 0.59 for antiparasitic use, however there were only 8 patients treated and authors do not distinguish between albendazole and ivermectin.
Study covers ivermectin and HCQ.
risk of death, 32.3% lower, RR 0.68, p = 0.57, treatment 8, control 387, adjusted per study, odds ratio converted to relative risk, ivermectin or albendazole, multivariable, control prevalance approximated with overall prevalence.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Silva et al., 20 May 2022, retrospective, Brazil, peer-reviewed, mean age 58.4, 28 authors, study period 25 March, 2020 - 21 October, 2020. Contact:
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Clinical-Epidemiology Aspect of Inpatients With Moderate or Severe COVID-19 in a Brazilian Macroregion: Disease and Countermeasures
Bruna Raphaela Oliveira Silva, Wellington Francisco Rodrigues, Daniela Gomes Pires Abadia, Djalma A Alves Da Silva, Leonardo E Andrade E Silva, Chamberttan S Desidério, Thais Soares Farnesi-De-Assunção, Juliana C Costa-Madeira, Rafaela M Barbosa, Anna V Bernardes E Borges, Andrezza C C Hortolani Cunha, Loren Q Pereira, Fernanda R Helmo, Marcela Rezende Lemes, Laís M Barbosa, Rafael O Trevisan, Malu Mateus Santos Obata, Giovanna F Bueno, Fabiano V Mundim, Ana Carolina M Oliveira-Scussel, Ivan B Monteiro, Yulsef M Ferreira, Guilherme H Machado, Kennio Ferreira-Paim, Hélio Moraes-Souza, Marcos Vinicius Da Silva, Virmondes Rodrigues Júnior, Carlo José Freire Oliveira
Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology, doi:10.3389/fcimb.2022.899702
COVID-19, also known as coronavirus disease 2019, is an infectious viral disease caused by SARS-CoV-2, a novel coronavirus. Since its emergence, its epidemiology has been explored; however, for some regions of the world, COVID-19's behavior, incidence, and impact remain unclear. In continental nations like Brazil, this lack of knowledge results in nonuniform control, prevention, and treatment measures, which can be controversial in some locations. This study aimed to describe the epidemiological profile of patients with COVID-19 in the macroregion of Tria ngulo Sul in the state of Minas Gerais (MG), Brazil. Between March 25 and October 21, 2020, data were collected and statistically analyzed from 395 hospitalized patients in the city of Uberaba, MG, suspected to have moderate or severe forms of the disease. Of the 395 suspected cases, 82% were confirmed to be positive for COVID-19. The mean age of positive patients was 58.4 years, and 60.76% were male. Following these patients throughout their hospitalization, a mortality rate of 31.3% was observed. In the population positive for COVID-19, the risk of death increased by 4% for each year of the patient's age. Likewise, the older the patient, the longer their hospitalization and the higher the risk of developing acute respiratory failure. Among the treatments tested in patients, heparin was associated with protection against mortality, and the absence of anticoagulant use was linked to a more than six times greater risk of death. Finally, comorbidities in patients
ETHICS STATEMENT The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Approved by the Research Ethics Committee of the Hospital de Clıńicas, Universidade Federal do Triangulo Mineiro (HC-UFTM) (approval number: 3.957.676). The patients/ participants provided their written informed consent to participate in this study. AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS CO designed the experiments. BO, WR, DA, DS, LA, CD, TF-d-A, JC-M, RB, AB, AH, LP, FH, ML, LB, RT, MO, GB, FM, AO-S, IM, YF, GM, K-FP, HM-S, MS, and VR performed the experiments. CO and WR analyzed the data. BO, WR, DA, DS, LA, CD, TF-d-A, JC-M, RB, AB, AH, LP, FH, ML, LB, RT, MO, GB, FM, AO-S, IM, YF, GM, KF-P, HM-S, MS, VR, and CO wrote the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. FUNDING This work was supported by the Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro (UFTM), Fundacão de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG), National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq), and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES; Finance code 001). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Publisher's Note: All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the..
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́stica, E Estados C
Late treatment
is less effective
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