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All Studies   Meta Analysis    Recent:   

Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities: The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial

Lim et al., JAMA, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189 (data 11/3/21), I-TECH, NCT04920942
Nov 2021  
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Mortality 69% Improvement Relative Risk Mortality (b) 75% Ventilation 59% ICU admission 22% Progression 31% Progression (b) -25% primary Hospitalization time -5% Recovery -2% Ivermectin  I-TECH  LATE TREATMENT  RCT Is late treatment with ivermectin beneficial for COVID-19? RCT 490 patients in Malaysia (May - October 2021) Lower mortality (p=0.09) and ventilation (p=0.17), not sig. c19ivm.org Lim et al., JAMA, November 2021 Favorsivermectin Favorscontrol 0 0.5 1 1.5 2+
Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 23 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,400+ studies for 79 treatments. c19ivm.org
RCT 490 late stage (>65% lung change chest radiography at baseline) hospitalized patients in Malaysia, showing no significant differences.
Mortality was 1.2% for ivermectin vs. 4% for control. If the same event rates continue, the trial would need to add ~13% more patients to reach statistical significance.
i.e., by continuing the trial for ~2 weeks, there is a reasonable chance of the result being a statistically significant ~69% reduction in mortality, which would equate to ~4 million lives saved if adopted at the start of the pandemic.
The mortality reduction is consistent with the results from all trials to date. While not reaching the significance threshold with the specified test, Bayesian analysis shows a 97% probability that ivermectin reduces mortality1.
Authors describe the mortality results as "similar" and they are not mentioned in the visual abstract or the conclusion, suggesting substantial investigator bias with a preference for a null result.
The primary outcome is based on SpO2 <95%, however baseline SpO2 is not provided. This outcome is of limited use in evaluating treatment because it occurred before the end of treatment for > ~80% of patients. The trial was open label and the primary outcome is subject to investigator bias - clinicians could easily bias the results by altering how they monitor SpO2, how precisely they enforced the threshold, or other aspects of SOC such as propensity to use prone positioning. Authors indicate the 95% value is from clinical stage 4, however the Malaysian government defines 94% as the threshold for stage 42, as per the NIH definition3. Using death/IMV/NIV/high flow for severe (as per WHO) also shows more favorable results4.
The mortality rate among all patients is too low to detect a 69% benefit with statistical significance, however the primary outcome gives us a subset of patients with severe cases that had progressed to SpO2 <95% shortly after randomization (and mostly before treatment ended). This result is statistically significant. For more discussion see:5,6.
The trial started May 31, 2021 and outcomes were changed in the trial record on June 16, 20217. Previously the only clinical outcomes listed (under secondary outcomes) were mortality and clinical response, both at 28 days. Clinical response at 28 days would be more informative than complete recovery at day 5 as reported.
Contact information was deleted in the trial record on November 3, 20218.
The ivermectin arm had higher incidence of chronic cardiac disease (15% vs. 8%, p=0.02) and higher use of antibiotics prior to enrollment (8% vs. 3%, p = 0.01), which may indicate that randomization resulted in more patients with higher risk/severity in the treatment arm.
Data sharing: authors report that the data is available, send requests to: stevenlimcl@gmail.com. NCT04920942 (history).
This is the 31st of 51 COVID-19 RCTs for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p=0.00000015.
This is the 66th of 104 COVID-19 controlled studies for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 1 sextillion).
risk of death, 69.0% lower, RR 0.31, p = 0.09, treatment 3 of 241 (1.2%), control 10 of 249 (4.0%), NNT 36.
risk of death, 75.2% lower, RR 0.25, p = 0.02, treatment 3 of 52 (5.8%), control 10 of 43 (23.3%), NNT 5.7, among patients progressing to severe cases (mostly before treatment ended).
risk of mechanical ventilation, 59.0% lower, RR 0.41, p = 0.17, treatment 4 of 241 (1.7%), control 10 of 249 (4.0%), NNT 42.
risk of ICU admission, 22.0% lower, RR 0.78, p = 0.79, treatment 6 of 241 (2.5%), control 8 of 249 (3.2%), NNT 138.
risk of progression, 31.1% lower, RR 0.69, p = 0.29, treatment 14 of 241 (5.8%), control 21 of 249 (8.4%), NNT 38, death/IMV/NIV/high flow (WHO severe cases).
risk of progression, 25.0% higher, RR 1.25, p = 0.25, treatment 52 of 241 (21.6%), control 43 of 249 (17.3%), primary outcome.
hospitalization time, 5.5% higher, relative time 1.05, p = 0.38, treatment 241, control 249.
risk of no recovery, 2.5% higher, RR 1.02, p = 0.86, treatment 116 of 241 (48.1%), control 116 of 247 (47.0%), day 5.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Lim et al., 3 Nov 2021, Randomized Controlled Trial, Malaysia, peer-reviewed, 26 authors, study period 31 May, 2021 - 9 October, 2021, average treatment delay 5.1 days, dosage 400μg/kg days 1-5, trial NCT04920942 (history) (I-TECH). Contact: stevenlimcl@gmail.com.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Efficacy of Ivermectin Treatment on Disease Progression Among Adults With Mild to Moderate COVID-19 and Comorbidities
Steven Chee Loon Lim, Chee Peng Hor, Kim Heng Tay, Anilawati Mat Jelani, MMed Wen Hao Tan, Hong Bee Ker, Ting Soo Chow, Masliza Zaid, Wee Kooi Cheah, Han Hua Lim, Khairil Erwan Khalid, Joo Thye Cheng, Hazfadzila Mohd Unit, Noralfazita An, Azraai Bahari Nasruddin, Lee Lee Low, Song Weng Ryan Khoo, Jia Hui Loh, Nor Zaila Zaidan, Suhaila Ab Wahab, Li Herng Song, Hui Moon Koh, Teck Long King, Nai Ming Lai, Suresh Kumar Chidambaram, Kalaiarasu M Peariasamy, Wen Yea Hwong, Ee Vien Low, Mohan Dass Pathmanathan, Muhammad Luqman Hamzah, Yew Chung Chan, James Yau Hon Voo, Chun Fei Yap, Yon Quan Chan, Lee Kuen Vun, Kent Kian Keong Kong, Yi Fang Lim, Yee Jie Teoh, Ammar Rashidi Abdullah, Anitha Ramadas, Chee Loon Leong, Noor Hidayu Wahab, Nadiah Ismail, Ismaliza Ismail, Tung Meng Lee, Pei Jie Khoo, Sook Hui Phua, Prethivan Pillai Gopalakrishnan, Sangeetha Jaya Selan, Iswaran Ampalakan, Jen Fai Khuan, Wan Nur Farra’ain Abdul Rashid, Siti Sha’ada Zakaria, Kalaiarasan Gemini, Haslina Burahan, Thaanveer Singh Santokh Singh, Noorfarzlina Jaafar, Nor Atikah Mohd Shukri, Syaza Izhar Hisham, Sheng Hao Teow, Chit Yeh Lim, Shageetha Rajantran, Siti Izzatul Annis Kamaruddin, Izarin Izmir Izhar, Nur Syuhada Mohd Mustapha, Zulkefli Mohamad, Seri Rabiatul Nur Abu Salim, Delarina Frimawati Othman Andu, Nurnadiah Kamarudin, Karamjit Kaur Sarban Singh, Eek Poei Tay, Siti Hir Huraizah Md Tahir, Shalini Vijayasingham, Yik Zhi Kum, Peter Andrew Natarajan, Yih Harng Soh, Syed Omar Farouk Syed Alwi, Hemaarubeni Murugan, Chuan Huan Chuah, Shin Wuei Tan, Kar Nim Leong, Peng Shyan Wong, Wendy Tyng Tyng Chen, Ru Shing Ng, Yen Li Lim, Farah Nadiah Bidin, Mann Leon Chin, Han Lin Guan, Mohd Hafiz Mohamad Rasli, Rafidah Abdullah, Mohd Akmal Jamaludin, Nabilah Mohd Shohaime, Syafiqah Mohd Mansor, Ruhaizad Rasliza, Lisa Mohamed Nor, Kah Mean Thong, Balasurindiran Muniandy, Pamela Varn Teing Saw, Kah Shuen Thong, Kee Cheong Wong, V Rubini Nair Muthi, Qhairyl Iylman Ahmad Shanizza, Lavanya Jeevaraj, Ee Lin Chew, Poh Ching Huang, Jasmine Retnasamy, Philip Rajan Devesahayam, Mei San Lim, Thilagavathi Thanusia Viswanathan, Muhammad Syafiq Mahamad Azazis, Gregory Domnic, Muhammad Fursanallah Tengku, Jeanette Qiu Yi Wong, Xin Hui Choo, Ambika Nair Prabhaharan, Nur Shakirah Zaharudin, Asma Usa’diyah Abu Bakar Sayuti, Nabilah Abdul Wahid, Nurul Hasanah Saat, Nurul Huda Othman, Aisyah Ahmad Zubaidi, Nurul Miza Shasheiha Abdul Mutalib, Viknesh Dev Lekh Raj Sharma, Daleni Gunaraj, Muhammad Na'imuddin'alim Hanafi, Nurul Atiqah Embok Ungah, Muhammad Ariffadilah Mohd Zahari, Chun Lian Chaw, Jennifer Arokisamy, Puteri Amira Mohd Hassan, Ainun Jariah Ayub, Azrin Nurfarahin Zainal Abidin, Khai Sin Choong, Lee Rhui Teoh, Huan Yean Kang, Kesavathy Krishnan, Peacchaima Purusothman, Mohamad Izwan Zainol, Mei Mei Tew, Mohd Fyzal Bahrudin, Kah Chuan Lim, Sharmila Mohd Nadzir, Lavanya Narayanan, Amira Naziffa Shamsuddin, Kok Tong Tan, Shaharudeen Kamaludeen, Nur Munirah Ibrahim, Pearly Kim Aik Sim, Irdina Aminuddi, Raja Nurulain Raja Nahar Putra, Lin Ye Yah, Boon Seng Liew, Tharmini Ravi, Syarifah Nurul Ain Syed Badaruddin, Nur Suriana Mah Hassan, Zulaika Roslan, Reshaini Nadarajan, Jian-Gang Ang, Minalosani Arumugam, Kin Wei Chua, Calvin Gim Seong Ooi, Siew Huang Lee, Way Ti Ooi, Xing Yi Tang, Kunaraj Perumalu, Muhammad Hazazi Razali, Mohamad Shamirul Afiq Murat, Nor Syahirah Hamdan, Muhammad Syafiq Hamidi, Amalina Anuar, Wei Chern Ang, Chee Kong Wong, Irma Liyana Mushaddik, Shafarul Halimi Mohamed, Raja Ahmad Reza Raja Lope Ahmad, Wan Mohd Khairul Wan Zainudin, Ahmad Fikhri Mohd Zin, Sze Kye Teoh, Mohd Yusran Yusoff, Siti Norizan Abdul Rani, Mazilah Ab Rahman, Maizatul Akmal Mohd Noor, Tuan Norhafiza Tuan Mat, Mohd Khairi Othman, Mohammad Sayed Sahul Hamid Gani, Ching Zin Ngua, Andrew Kean Wei Chang, Zhun Han Wong, Andy Tze Yang Ko, Su Fui Thung, Xun Ting Tiong, Hock Hin Chua, Kiam Seong Goh, Shanthini Muthusamy, Wai Yang Loo, Thamarai Supramaniam, Rakesh Lingam, Logadharshini Chandra Kumar, Siew Theng Chun, Dariel R Selvarajah, Darshinnee Mohan Raja, One Ling Low, Prathiv Supparmaniam, Husna Ad Suhadak, Boon Cong Beh, Yi Lin Lee, Cheng Lee Ooi, Khairul Nisa' Ishak, Rozila Harun, Soon Leng Lee, Kok Soon Lee, Ji Ken Ow, Neerusha Kaisbain, Caryn Jia Wern Leong, Yun Lee Chee, Keng Long Teh, Kam Veng Chan, Kee Tat Lee, E Jinq Wong, Ibtisam Ismail, Mohd Azri Mohd Suan, Ahmad Lutfi Mohamed Yusoff, Tuan Muhd Fairuz Tuan Ismail @tuan Manah, Khairul Azmi Ibrahim, Hazfadzila Mohd Unit, Norsima Nazifah Sidek, Noraini Seman
JAMA Internal Medicine, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189
IMPORTANCE Ivermectin, an inexpensive and widely available antiparasitic drug, is prescribed to treat COVID-19. Evidence-based data to recommend either for or against the use of ivermectin are needed. OBJECTIVE To determine the efficacy of ivermectin in preventing progression to severe disease among high-risk patients with COVID-19. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Ivermectin Treatment Efficacy in COVID-19 High-Risk Patients (I-TECH) study was an open-label randomized clinical trial conducted at 20 public hospitals and a COVID-19 quarantine center in Malaysia between May 31 and October 25, 2021. Within the first week of patients' symptom onset, the study enrolled patients 50 years and older with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, comorbidities, and mild to moderate disease. INTERVENTIONS Patients were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to receive either oral ivermectin, 0.4 mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days, plus standard of care (n = 241) or standard of care alone (n = 249). The standard of care consisted of symptomatic therapy and monitoring for signs of early deterioration based on clinical findings, laboratory test results, and chest imaging. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who progressed to severe disease, defined as the hypoxic stage requiring supplemental oxygen to maintain pulse oximetry oxygen saturation of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes of the trial included the rates of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, 28-day in-hospital mortality, and adverse events. RESULTS Among 490 patients included in the primary analysis (mean [SD] age, 62.5 [8.7] years; 267 women [54.5%]), 52 of 241 patients (21.6%) in the ivermectin group and 43 of 249 patients (17.3%) in the control group progressed to severe disease (relative risk [RR], 1.25; 95% CI, 0.87-1.80; P = .25). For all prespecified secondary outcomes, there were no significant differences between groups. Mechanical ventilation occurred in 4 (1.7%) vs 10 (4.0%) (RR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.13-1.30; P = .17), intensive care unit admission in 6 (2.4%) vs 8 (3.2%) (RR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.27-2.20; P = .79), and 28-day in-hospital death in 3 (1.2%) vs 10 (4.0%) (RR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.09-1.11; P = .09). The most common adverse event reported was diarrhea (14 [5.8%] in the ivermectin group and 4 [1.6%] in the control group). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE In this randomized clinical trial of high-risk patients with mild to moderate COVID-19, ivermectin treatment during early illness did not prevent progression to severe disease. The study findings do not support the use of ivermectin for patients with COVID-19.
Conflict of Interest Additional Contributions: The authors thank all the investigators at the 21 study sites and the Institute for Clinical Research, Ministry of Health Malaysia, for their immense contribution and support. In addition, we are grateful for the participation of the patients enrolled in this study. We also thank the members of the independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board, namely Petrick Periyasamy, MMed, National University Medical Centre, Malaysia; Lai Hui Pang, BPharm, Institute for Clinical Research, Malaysia; Mohamad Adam Bujang, PhD, Institute for Clinical Research, Malaysia; Wei Hong Lai, PhD, Institute for Clinical Research, Malaysia; and Nurakmal Baharum, BSc, Institute for Clinical Research, Malaysia. They did not receive compensation for their contribution to this study. We also thank Noor Hisham Abdullah, M Surg, Director-General of Health Malaysia, for his permission to publish this study.
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of Medicine, Sungai Buloh Hospital, Selangor, ' 'Malaysia'}]}, { 'given': 'Kalaiarasu M.', 'family': 'Peariasamy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [ { 'name': 'Institute for Clinical Research, National Institutes of Health, ' 'Selangor, Malaysia'}]}, { 'given': 'Wen Yea', 'family': 'Hwong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ee Vien', 'family': 'Low', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohan Dass', 'family': 'Pathmanathan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Luqman', 'family': 'Hamzah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yew Chung', 'family': 'Chan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'James Yau Hon', 'family': 'Voo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chun Fei', 'family': 'Yap', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yon Quan', 'family': 'Chan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lee Kuen', 'family': 'Vun', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kent Kian Keong', 'family': 'Kong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yi Fang', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yee Jie', 'family': 'Teoh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ammar Rashidi', 'family': 'Abdullah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Anitha', 'family': 'Ramadas', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chee Loon', 'family': 'Leong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Noor Hidayu', 'family': 'Wahab', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nadiah', 'family': 'Ismail', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ismaliza', 'family': 'Ismail', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Tung Meng', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Pei Jie', 'family': 'Khoo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Sook Hui', 'family': 'Phua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Prethivan Pillai', 'family': 'Gopalakrishnan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Sangeetha', 'family': 'Jaya Selan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Iswaran', 'family': 'Ampalakan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Jen Fai', 'family': 'Khuan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Wan Nur Farra’Ain', 'family': 'Abdul Rashid', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siti Sha’ada', 'family': 'Zakaria', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kalaiarasan', 'family': 'Gemini', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Haslina', 'family': 'Burahan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Thaanveer Singh', 'family': 'Santokh Singh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Noorfarzlina', 'family': 'Jaafar', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nor Atikah', 'family': 'Mohd Shukri', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Syaza', 'family': 'Izhar Hisham', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Sheng Hao', 'family': 'Teow', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chit Yeh', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shageetha', 'family': 'Rajantran', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siti Izzatul Annis', 'family': 'Kamaruddin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Izarin Izmir', 'family': 'Izhar', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nur Syuhada', 'family': 'Mohd Mustapha', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Zulkefli', 'family': 'Mohamad', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Seri Rabiatul Nur', 'family': 'Abu Salim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Delarina Frimawati', 'family': 'Othman Andu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nurnadiah', 'family': 'Kamarudin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Karamjit Kaur', 'family': 'Sarban Singh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Eek Poei', 'family': 'Tay', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siti Hir Huraizah', 'family': 'Md Tahir', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shalini', 'family': 'Vijayasingham', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yik Zhi', 'family': 'Kum', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Peter Andrew', 'family': 'Natarajan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yih Harng', 'family': 'Soh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Syed Omar Farouk', 'family': 'Syed Alwi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Hemaarubeni', 'family': 'Murugan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chuan Huan', 'family': 'Chuah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shin Wuei', 'family': 'Tan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kar Nim', 'family': 'Leong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Peng Shyan', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Wendy Tyng Tyng', 'family': 'Chen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ru Shing', 'family': 'Ng', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yen Li', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Farah Nadiah', 'family': 'Bidin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mann Leon', 'family': 'Chin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Han Lin', 'family': 'Guan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Hafiz', 'family': 'Mohamad Rasli', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Rafidah', 'family': 'Abdullah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Akmal', 'family': 'Jamaludin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nabilah', 'family': 'Mohd Shohaime', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Syafiqah', 'family': 'Mohd Mansor', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ruhaizad', 'family': 'Rasliza', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lisa', 'family': 'Mohamed Nor', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kah Mean', 'family': 'Thong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Balasurindiran', 'family': 'Muniandy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Pamela Varn Teing', 'family': 'Saw', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kah Shuen', 'family': 'Thong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kee Cheong', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'V. Rubini Nair', 'family': 'Muthi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Qhairyl Iylman', 'family': 'Ahmad Shanizza', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lavanya', 'family': 'Jeevaraj', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ee Lin', 'family': 'Chew', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Poh Ching', 'family': 'Huang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Jasmine', 'family': 'Retnasamy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Philip Rajan', 'family': 'Devesahayam', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mei San', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Thilagavathi Thanusia', 'family': 'Viswanathan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Syafiq', 'family': 'Mahamad Azazis', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Gregory', 'family': 'Domnic', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Fursanallah', 'family': 'Tengku', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Jeanette Qiu Yi', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Xin Hui', 'family': 'Choo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ambika Nair', 'family': 'Prabhaharan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nur Shakirah', 'family': 'Zaharudin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Asma Usa’diyah', 'family': 'Abu Bakar Sayuti', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nabilah', 'family': 'Abdul Wahid', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nurul Hasanah', 'family': 'Saat', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nurul Huda', 'family': 'Othman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Aisyah', 'family': 'Ahmad Zubaidi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nurul Miza Shasheiha', 'family': 'Abdul Mutalib', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Viknesh Dev', 'family': 'Lekh Raj Sharma', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Daleni', 'family': 'Gunaraj', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': "Muhammad Na'imuddin'alim", 'family': 'Hanafi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nurul Atiqah', 'family': 'Embok Ungah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Ariffadilah', 'family': 'Mohd Zahari', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chun Lian', 'family': 'Chaw', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Jennifer', 'family': 'Arokisamy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Puteri Amira', 'family': 'Mohd Hassan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ainun Jariah', 'family': 'Ayub', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Azrin Nurfarahin', 'family': 'Zainal Abidin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Khai Sin', 'family': 'Choong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lee Rhui', 'family': 'Teoh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Huan Yean', 'family': 'Kang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kesavathy', 'family': 'Krishnan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Peacchaima', 'family': 'Purusothman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohamad Izwan', 'family': 'Zainol', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mei Mei', 'family': 'Tew', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Fyzal', 'family': 'Bahrudin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kah Chuan', 'family': 'Lim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Sharmila', 'family': 'Mohd Nadzir', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lavanya', 'family': 'Narayanan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Amira Naziffa', 'family': 'Shamsuddin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kok Tong', 'family': 'Tan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shaharudeen', 'family': 'Kamaludeen', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nur Munirah', 'family': 'Ibrahim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Pearly Kim Aik', 'family': 'Sim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Irdina', 'family': 'Aminuddi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Raja Nurulain', 'family': 'Raja Nahar Putra', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Lin Ye', 'family': 'Yah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Boon Seng', 'family': 'Liew', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Tharmini', 'family': 'Ravi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Syarifah Nurul Ain', 'family': 'Syed Badaruddin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nur Suriana', 'family': 'Mah Hassan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Zulaika', 'family': 'Roslan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Reshaini', 'family': 'Nadarajan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Jian-Gang', 'family': 'Ang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Minalosani', 'family': 'Arumugam', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kin Wei', 'family': 'Chua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Calvin Gim Seong', 'family': 'Ooi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siew Huang', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Way Ti', 'family': 'Ooi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Xing Yi', 'family': 'Tang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kunaraj', 'family': 'Perumalu', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Hazazi', 'family': 'Razali', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohamad Shamirul Afiq', 'family': 'Murat', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Nor Syahirah', 'family': 'Hamdan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Muhammad Syafiq', 'family': 'Hamidi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Amalina', 'family': 'Anuar', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Wei Chern', 'family': 'Ang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Chee Kong', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Irma Liyana', 'family': 'Mushaddik', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shafarul Halimi', 'family': 'Mohamed', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Raja Ahmad Reza', 'family': 'Raja Lope Ahmad', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Wan Mohd Khairul', 'family': 'Wan Zainudin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ahmad Fikhri', 'family': 'Mohd Zin', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Sze Kye', 'family': 'Teoh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Yusran', 'family': 'Yusoff', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siti Norizan', 'family': 'Abdul Rani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mazilah', 'family': 'Ab Rahman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Maizatul Akmal', 'family': 'Mohd Noor', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Tuan Norhafiza', 'family': 'Tuan Mat', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Khairi', 'family': 'Othman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohammad', 'family': 'Sayed Sahul Hamid Gani', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ching Zin', 'family': 'Ngua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Andrew Kean Wei', 'family': 'Chang', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Zhun Han', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Andy Tze Yang', 'family': 'Ko', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Su Fui', 'family': 'Thung', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Xun Ting', 'family': 'Tiong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Hock Hin', 'family': 'Chua', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kiam Seong', 'family': 'Goh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Shanthini', 'family': 'Muthusamy', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Wai Yang', 'family': 'Loo', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Thamarai', 'family': 'Supramaniam', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Rakesh', 'family': 'Lingam', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Logadharshini', 'family': 'Chandra Kumar', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Siew Theng', 'family': 'Chun', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Dariel', 'family': 'R Selvarajah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Darshinnee', 'family': 'Mohan Raja', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'One Ling', 'family': 'Low', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Prathiv', 'family': 'Supparmaniam', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Husna', 'family': 'Ad Suhadak', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Boon Cong', 'family': 'Beh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Yi Lin', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Cheng Lee', 'family': 'Ooi', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 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[{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Keng Long', 'family': 'Teh', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kam Veng', 'family': 'Chan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Kee Tat', 'family': 'Lee', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'E Jinq', 'family': 'Wong', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ibtisam', 'family': 'Ismail', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Mohd Azri', 'family': 'Mohd Suan', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Ahmad Lutfi', 'family': 'Mohamed Yusoff', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Tuan Muhd Fairuz', 'family': 'Tuan Ismail @Tuan Manah', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Khairul Azmi', 'family': 'Ibrahim', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Hazfadzila', 'family': 'Mohd Unit', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Norsima Nazifah', 'family': 'Sidek', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, { 'given': 'Noraini', 'family': 'Seman', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': [{'name': 'for the I-TECH Study Group'}]}, {'name': 'I-TECH Study Group', 'sequence': 'additional', 'affiliation': []}], 'member': '10', 'reference': [ { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'ioi220006r1', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '693', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2021436', 'article-title': 'Dexamethasone in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'Horby', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '16', 'key': 'ioi220006r2', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1491', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2100433', 'article-title': 'Interleukin-6 receptor antagonists in critically ill patients with ' 'COVID-19.', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'Gordon', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '10285', 'key': 'ioi220006r3', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1637', 'DOI': '10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00676-0', 'article-title': 'Tocilizumab in patients admitted to hospital with COVID-19 (RECOVERY): ' 'a randomised, controlled, open-label, platform trial.', 'volume': '397', 'author': 'RECOVERY Collaborative Group', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Lancet'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'ioi220006r4', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '238', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2035002', 'article-title': 'REGN-COV2, a neutralizing antibody cocktail, in outpatients with ' 'COVID-19.', 'volume': '384', 'author': 'Weinreich', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '15', 'key': 'ioi220006r5', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1382', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2102685', 'article-title': 'Bamlanivimab plus etesevimab in mild or moderate COVID-19.', 'volume': '385', 'author': 'Dougan', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '21', 'key': 'ioi220006r6', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1941', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2107934', 'article-title': 'Early treatment for COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody ' 'sotrovimab.', 'volume': '385', 'author': 'Gupta', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': '19', 'key': 'ioi220006r7', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1813', 'DOI': '10.1056/NEJMoa2007764', 'article-title': 'Remdesivir for the treatment of COVID-19—final report.', 'volume': '383', 'author': 'Beigel', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'N Engl J Med'}, { 'issue': 'n2422', 'key': 'ioi220006r8', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'n2422', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n2422', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: molnupiravir reduces risk of hospital admission or death by ' '50% in patients at risk, MSD reports.', 'volume': '375', 'author': 'Mahase', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'issue': 'n2713', 'key': 'ioi220006r9', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'n2713', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmj.n2713', 'article-title': 'COVID-19: Pfizer’s paxlovid is 89% effective in patients at risk of ' 'serious illness, company reports.', 'volume': '375', 'author': 'Mahase', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMJ'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r10', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.drup.2021.100794', 'article-title': 'An update on drugs with therapeutic potential for SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) ' 'treatment.', 'volume': '59', 'author': 'Drozdzal', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Drug Resist Updat'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r11', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.lanwpc.2020.100055', 'article-title': 'Clinical characteristics and risk factors for severe COVID-19 ' 'infections in Malaysia: A nationwide observational study.', 'volume': '4', 'author': 'Sim', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Reg Health West Pac'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r12', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104787', 'article-title': 'The FDA-approved drug ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 ' 'in vitro.', 'volume': '178', 'author': 'Caly', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Antiviral Res'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': 'ioi220006r13', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e434', 'DOI': '10.1097/MJT.0000000000001402', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin for prevention and treatment of COVID-19 infection: a ' 'systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis to ' 'inform clinical guidelines.', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Bryant', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Am J Ther'}, { 'issue': '3', 'key': 'ioi220006r14', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e299', 'DOI': '10.1097/MJT.0000000000001377', 'article-title': 'Review of the emerging evidence demonstrating the efficacy of ' 'ivermectin in the prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19.', 'volume': '28', 'author': 'Kory', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Am J Ther'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r15', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1136/bmjebm-2021-111678', 'article-title': 'Misleading clinical evidence and systematic reviews on ivermectin for ' 'COVID-19.', 'author': 'Garegnani', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMJ Evid Based Med'}, { 'issue': '14', 'key': 'ioi220006r16', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1426', 'DOI': '10.1001/jama.2021.3071', 'article-title': 'Effect of ivermectin on time to resolution of symptoms among adults ' 'with mild COVID-19: a randomized clinical trial.', 'volume': '325', 'author': 'López-Medina', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'JAMA'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'ioi220006r17', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '635', 'DOI': '10.1186/s12879-021-06348-5', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin to prevent hospitalizations in patients with COVID-19 ' '(IVERCOR-COVID19): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled ' 'trial.', 'volume': '21', 'author': 'Vallejos', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'BMC Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '7', 'key': 'ioi220006r18', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin for preventing and treating COVID-19.', 'volume': '7', 'author': 'Popp', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Cochrane Database Syst Rev'}, { 'issue': '8', 'key': 'ioi220006r21', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e192', 'DOI': '10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30483-7', 'article-title': 'A minimal common outcome measure set for COVID-19 clinical research.', 'volume': '20', 'author': 'Marshall', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Lancet Infect Dis'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r22', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbi.2019.103208', 'article-title': 'The REDCap consortium: building an international community of software ' 'platform partners.', 'volume': '95', 'author': 'Harris', 'year': '2019', 'journal-title': 'J Biomed Inform'}, { 'issue': '2', 'key': 'ioi220006r23', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '377', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.jbi.2008.08.010', 'article-title': 'Research electronic data capture (REDCap)—a metadata-driven methodology ' 'and workflow process for providing translational research informatics ' 'support.', 'volume': '42', 'author': 'Harris', 'year': '2009', 'journal-title': 'J Biomed Inform'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'ioi220006r26', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1093/ofid/ofab358', 'article-title': 'Meta-analysis of randomized trials of ivermectin to treat SARS-CoV-2 ' 'infection.', 'volume': '8', 'author': 'Hill', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Open Forum Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '4', 'key': 'ioi220006r27', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '762', 'DOI': '10.1002/cpt.v108.4', 'article-title': 'The approved dose of ivermectin alone is not the ideal dose for the ' 'treatment of COVID-19.', 'volume': '108', 'author': 'Schmith', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Clin Pharmacol Ther'}, { 'issue': '1', 'key': 'ioi220006r28', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '469', 'DOI': '10.1080/13102818.2020.1775118', 'article-title': 'Ivermectin as a potential COVID-19 treatment from the pharmacokinetic ' 'point of view: antiviral levels are not likely attainable with known ' 'dosing regimens.', 'volume': '34', 'author': 'Momekov', 'year': '2020', 'journal-title': 'Biotechnology & Biotechnological Equipment'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r29', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100959', 'article-title': 'Antiviral effect of high-dose ivermectin in adults with COVID-19: a ' 'proof-of-concept randomized trial.', 'volume': '37', 'author': 'Krolewiecki', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'EClinicalMedicine'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r30', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '214', 'DOI': '10.1016/j.ijid.2020.11.191', 'article-title': 'A five-day course of ivermectin for the treatment of COVID-19 may ' 'reduce the duration of illness.', 'volume': '103', 'author': 'Ahmed', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Int J Infect Dis'}, { 'issue': '10', 'key': 'ioi220006r33', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': '1122', 'DOI': '10.1177/009127002401382731', 'article-title': 'Safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of escalating high doses of ' 'ivermectin in healthy adult subjects.', 'volume': '42', 'author': 'Guzzo', 'year': '2002', 'journal-title': 'J Clin Pharmacol'}, { 'issue': '11', 'key': 'ioi220006r34', 'doi-asserted-by': 'publisher', 'first-page': 'e4197', 'DOI': '10.1093/cid/ciaa851', 'article-title': 'Impact of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 viral load on ' 'risk of intubation and mortality among hospitalized patients with ' 'coronavirus disease 2019.', 'volume': '73', 'author': 'Magleby', 'year': '2021', 'journal-title': 'Clin Infect Dis'}, {'key': 'ioi220006r24', 'author': 'National Cancer Institute', 'year': '2017'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r19', 'unstructured': 'World Health Organization. WHO advises that ivermectin only be used to ' 'treat COVID-19 within clinical trials. Accessed March 31, 2021. ' 'https://www.who.int/news-room/feature-stories/detail/who-advises-that-ivermectin-only-be-used-to-treat-covid-19-within-clinical-trials'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r20', 'unstructured': 'COVID-19 management guidelines in Malaysia. Ministry of Health, ' 'Malaysia. Accessed February 2, 2022. ' 'https://covid-19.moh.gov.my/garis-panduan/garis-panduan-kkm'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r25', 'unstructured': 'COVIDNOW in Malaysia. Ministry of Health, Malaysia. Accessed February 2, ' '2022. https://covidnow.moh.gov.my/deaths'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r31', 'unstructured': 'Abu Taiub Mohammed Mohiuddin? C, Mohammad? S, Md Rezaul? K, Johirul? I, ' 'Dan? G, Shuixiang? H.? A comparative study on ivermectin doxycycline and ' 'hydroxychloroquine azithromycin therapy on COVID-19 patients.? Research ' 'Square. 2021.'}, { 'key': 'ioi220006r32', 'doi-asserted-by': 'crossref', 'unstructured': 'Hashim? HA, Maulood? MF, Rasheed? AM, Fatak? DF, Kabah? KK, Abdulamir? ' 'AS. Controlled randomized clinical trial on using ivermectin with ' 'doxycycline for treating COVID-19 patients in Baghdad, Iraq.? medRxiv. ' '2020. doi:10.1101/2020.10.26.20219345?', 'DOI': '10.1101/2020.10.26.20219345'}], 'container-title': 'JAMA Internal Medicine', 'original-title': [], 'language': 'en', 'link': [ { 'URL': 'https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/articlepdf/2789362/jamainternal_lim_2022_oi_220006_1649946556.24982.pdf', 'content-type': 'unspecified', 'content-version': 'vor', 'intended-application': 'similarity-checking'}], 'deposited': { 'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 18]], 'date-time': '2022-04-18T15:00:32Z', 'timestamp': 1650294032000}, 'score': 1, 'resource': { 'primary': { 'URL': 'https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2789362'}}, 'subtitle': ['The I-TECH Randomized Clinical Trial'], 'short-title': [], 'issued': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]]}, 'references-count': 34, 'journal-issue': {'issue': '4', 'published-print': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]]}}, 'URL': 'http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.0189', 'relation': { 'has-review': [ { 'id-type': 'doi', 'id': '10.3410/f.741660542.793591932', 'asserted-by': 'object'}]}, 'ISSN': ['2168-6106'], 'subject': ['Internal Medicine'], 'container-title-short': 'JAMA Intern Med', 'published': {'date-parts': [[2022, 4, 1]]}}
Late treatment
is less effective
Please send us corrections, updates, or comments. c19early involves the extraction of 100,000+ datapoints from thousands of papers. Community updates help ensure high accuracy. Treatments and other interventions are complementary. All practical, effective, and safe means should be used based on risk/benefit analysis. No treatment or intervention is 100% available and effective for all current and future variants. We do not provide medical advice. Before taking any medication, consult a qualified physician who can provide personalized advice and details of risks and benefits based on your medical history and situation. FLCCC and WCH provide treatment protocols.
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