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The therapeutic potential of ivermectin for COVID-19: a systematic review of mechanisms and evidence

Kalfas et al., medRxiv, doi:10.1101/2020.11.30.20236570
Dec 2020  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 100 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Review of ivermectin mechanisms and 8 trials, showing positive mortality benefit, reduced time to clinical recovery, reduced incidence of disease progression, and decreased duration of hospital admission in patients across all stages of clinical severity.
7 meta analyses show significant improvements with ivermectin for mortality Bryant, Hariyanto, Kory, Lawrie, Nardelli, Zein, hospitalization Schwartz, recovery Kory, and cases Kory.
Currently there are 100 ivermectin for COVID-19 studies, showing 49% lower mortality [35‑60%], 29% lower ventilation [13‑42%], 38% lower ICU admission [14‑56%], 34% lower hospitalization [20‑45%], and 81% fewer cases [71‑87%].
Kalfas et al., 4 Dec 2020, preprint, 4 authors.
This PaperIvermectinAll
MD Stefanie Kalfas, MBBS FRACP PhD Kumar Visvanathan, DSc Kim Chan, MBBS FRACP PhD John Drago
Introduction: Ivermectin is a commonly used antihelminthic agent with over 35 years of established safety data in humans. Recent data demonstrates antiviral activity in vitro against SARS-CoV-2, in addition to a range of viruses. In vitro and animal models also provide evidence of immunomodulatory action. These additional modes of action are supported by in silico modelling, which propose a number of viral and host targets that would mediate these effects. Objectives: The aim of this study is to systematically review the published and preprint clinical literature and study results that assessed the potential role of ivermectin as a COVID-19 therapeutic and prophylactic agent. Methods: We conducted a comprehensive review of PubMed, medRxiv,, Global Coronavirus COVID-19 Clinical Trial Tracker, World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, EU Clinical Trials Register, ANZ clinical trials registry, and references from relevant articles. Results: Search keywords-"COVID-19 (and synonyms) AND ivermectin"-generated 86 articles on PubMed, 48 on medRvix and 37 on at the time of writing. Twelve of these were listed as completed clinical trials and of these, 8 were included as investigators had released results. Positive mortality benefit, reduced time to clinical recovery, reduced incidence of disease progression and decreased duration of hospital admission were reported in patients across all stages of clinical severity. Limitations: Due to the time-critical nature of the COVID-19 pandemic our review included preprint data, which must be interpreted with caution while it awaits peer review.
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