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Inhibitory potentials of ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat on spike protein and some nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2: Virtual screening approach

Umar et al., Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium, doi:10.29238/teknolabjournal.v11i1.344
Jun 2022  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 100 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
In Silico study of ivermectin, camostat, and nafamostat, showing that ivermectin had the best inhibitory action on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Nsp10, while nafamostat had the best results for the other non-structural proteins. Authors note that the combination of ivermectin and nafamostat may be beneficial for COVID-19.
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N7 Götz, Dengue Tay, Wagstaff, HIV-1 Wagstaff, Simian virus 40 Wagstaff (B), Zika Barrows, Yang, West Nile Yang, Yellow Fever Mastrangelo, Varghese, Japanese encephalitis Mastrangelo, Chikungunya Varghese, Semliki Forest virus Varghese, Human papillomavirus Li, Epstein-Barr Li, BK Polyomavirus Bennett, and Sindbis virus Varghese.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins Götz, Kosyna, Wagstaff, Wagstaff (B), inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro Mody, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing Fauquet, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination Boschi, Scheim, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury Abd-Elmawla, Ma, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation Vottero, may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation Liu (C), shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-19 DiNicolantonio, Zhang, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage Zhao, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage Liu, Liu (B), increases Bifidobacterium which plays a key role in the immune system Hazan, has immunomodulatory Munson and anti-inflammatory DiNicolantonio (B), Yan properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile Descotes.
Umar et al., 30 Jun 2022, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Haruna Isiyaku Umar, Ijeoma Akunna Duru, Uchechi Emmanuela Enenebeaku, Lynda Chioma Ngozi-Olehi, Christian Ebere Enyoh, Chidi Edbert Duru
The search for potential oral drugs either through synthetic routes or by drug repurposing for combating the dreaded covid-19 virus is still ongoing. The coronavirus spike glycoprotein and several other non-structural proteins play crucial roles in the replication and transmission of this virus. Recent research have identified ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat as promising drug inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. The broad-spectrum inhibitory action of ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat on the spike glycoprotein and some non-structural proteins of this virus was studied in silico. The spike glycoprotein, nsp3, nsp5, nsp9, nsp10, nsp13, and nsp16 were selected for this study and were
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS CED: Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Methodology, Software HIU: Conceptualization, Supervision, Methodology, Data curation, Software. IAD: Visualization, Investigation. UEE: Visualization, Investigation. LCN: Original draft preparation, Writing-Reviewing and Editing. CEE: Original draft preparation, Writing-Reviewing and Editing. FUNDING INFORMATION No funds, grants, or other support was received. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated agency of the authors. The data is the result of the author's research and has never been published in other journals. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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