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Inhibitory potentials of ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat on spike protein and some nonstructural proteins of SARS-CoV-2: Virtual screening approach

Umar et al., Jurnal Teknologi Laboratorium, doi:10.29238/teknolabjournal.v11i1.344
Jun 2022  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine treatments. * >10% efficacy, ≥3 studies.
4,300+ studies for 75 treatments.
In Silico study of ivermectin, camostat, and nafamostat, showing that ivermectin had the best inhibitory action on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and Nsp10, while nafamostat had the best results for the other non-structural proteins. Authors note that the combination of ivermectin and nafamostat may be beneficial for COVID-19.
68 preclinical studies support the efficacy of ivermectin for COVID-19:
Ivermectin, better known for antiparasitic activity, is a broad spectrum antiviral with activity against many viruses including H7N766, Dengue32,67,68, HIV-168, Simian virus 4069, Zika32,70,71, West Nile71, Yellow Fever72,73, Japanese encephalitis72, Chikungunya73, Semliki Forest virus73, Human papillomavirus52, Epstein-Barr52, BK Polyomavirus74, and Sindbis virus73.
Ivermectin inhibits importin-α/β-dependent nuclear import of viral proteins66,68,69,75, shows spike-ACE2 disruption at 1nM with microfluidic diffusional sizing33, binds to glycan sites on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein preventing interaction with blood and epithelial cells and inhibiting hemagglutination36,76, shows dose-dependent inhibition of wildtype and omicron variants31, exhibits dose-dependent inhibition of lung injury56,61, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 via IMPase inhibition32, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 induced formation of fibrin clots resistant to degradation5, inhibits SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro49, may inhibit SARS-CoV-2 RdRp activity24, may minimize viral myocarditis by inhibiting NF-κB/p65-mediated inflammation in macrophages55, may be beneficial for COVID-19 ARDS by blocking GSDMD and NET formation77, shows protection against inflammation, cytokine storm, and mortality in an LPS mouse model sharing key pathological features of severe COVID-1954,78, may be beneficial in severe COVID-19 by binding IGF1 to inhibit the promotion of inflammation, fibrosis, and cell proliferation that leads to lung damage4, may minimize SARS-CoV-2 induced cardiac damage35,43, increases Bifidobacteria which play a key role in the immune system79, has immunomodulatory46 and anti-inflammatory65,80 properties, and has an extensive and very positive safety profile81.
Umar et al., 30 Jun 2022, peer-reviewed, 6 authors.
In Silico studies are an important part of preclinical research, however results may be very different in vivo.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Haruna Isiyaku Umar, Ijeoma Akunna Duru, Uchechi Emmanuela Enenebeaku, Lynda Chioma Ngozi-Olehi, Christian Ebere Enyoh, Chidi Edbert Duru
The search for potential oral drugs either through synthetic routes or by drug repurposing for combating the dreaded covid-19 virus is still ongoing. The coronavirus spike glycoprotein and several other non-structural proteins play crucial roles in the replication and transmission of this virus. Recent research have identified ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat as promising drug inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 target proteins. The broad-spectrum inhibitory action of ivermectin, nafamostat, and camostat on the spike glycoprotein and some non-structural proteins of this virus was studied in silico. The spike glycoprotein, nsp3, nsp5, nsp9, nsp10, nsp13, and nsp16 were selected for this study and were
AUTHORS' CONTRIBUTIONS CED: Conceptualization, Data curation, Supervision, Methodology, Software HIU: Conceptualization, Supervision, Methodology, Data curation, Software. IAD: Visualization, Investigation. UEE: Visualization, Investigation. LCN: Original draft preparation, Writing-Reviewing and Editing. CEE: Original draft preparation, Writing-Reviewing and Editing. FUNDING INFORMATION No funds, grants, or other support was received. DATA AVAILABILITY STATEMENT All data generated or analyzed during this study are included in this published article. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT The views and opinions expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of any affiliated agency of the authors. The data is the result of the author's research and has never been published in other journals. The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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