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0 0.5 1 1.5 2+ Mortality 64% Improvement Relative Risk Ivermectin  Mustafa et al.  LATE TREATMENT Is late treatment with ivermectin beneficial for COVID-19? Retrospective 444 patients in Pakistan Lower mortality with ivermectin (not stat. sig., p=0.087) Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research i.., Dec 2021 Favors ivermectin Favors control

Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan

Mustafa et al., Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101
Dec 2021  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
*, now known with p < 0.00000000001 from 100 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
No treatment is 100% effective. Protocols combine complementary and synergistic treatments. * >10% efficacy in meta analysis with ≥3 clinical studies.
3,800+ studies for 60+ treatments.
Retrospective 444 hospitalized patients in Pakistan, showing lower mortality with ivermectin treatment in unadjusted results, not reaching statistical significance. Ivermectin was mostly used with patients in severe condition. Dose ranged from 12mg to 36mg for up to seven days.
This is the 73rd of 100 COVID-19 controlled studies for ivermectin, which collectively show efficacy with p<0.0000000001 (1 in 1 sextillion). 47 studies are RCTs, which show efficacy with p=0.0000002.
This study is excluded in the after exclusion results of meta analysis: unadjusted results with no group details.
Study covers aspirin, remdesivir, and ivermectin.
risk of death, 63.7% lower, RR 0.36, p = 0.09, treatment 3 of 73 (4.1%), control 42 of 371 (11.3%), NNT 14.
Effect extraction follows pre-specified rules prioritizing more serious outcomes. Submit updates
Mustafa et al., 29 Dec 2021, retrospective, Pakistan, peer-reviewed, 7 authors, dosage varies.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Pattern of medication utilization in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 in three District Headquarters Hospitals in the Punjab province of Pakistan
Zia Ul Mustafa, Chia Siang Kow, Muhammad Salman, Mahpara Kanwal, Muhammad Bilal Riaz, Samina Parveen, Syed Shahzad Hasan
Exploratory Research in Clinical and Social Pharmacy, doi:10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100101
This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. This version will undergo additional copyediting, typesetting and review before it is published in its final form, but we are providing this version to give early visibility of the article. Please note that, during the production process, errors may be discovered which could affect the content, and all legal disclaimers that apply to the journal pertain.
to 2.5 times the upper limit of normal Declaration of interests ☒ The authors declare that they have no known competing financial interests or personal relationships that could have appeared to influence the work reported in this paper. ☐The authors declare the following financial interests/personal relationships which may be considered as potential competing interests: J o u r n a l P r e -p r o o f
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Late treatment
is less effective
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