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Comparative distribution of ivermectin and doramectin to parasite location tissues in cattle

Lifschitz et al., Veterinary Parasitology, doi:10.1016/s0304-4017(99)00175-2
Feb 2000  
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Ivermectin for COVID-19
4th treatment shown to reduce risk in August 2020
 
*, now with p < 0.00000000001 from 104 studies, recognized in 22 countries.
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4,300+ studies for 75 treatments. c19ivm.org
Pharmacokinetic analysis of ivermectin in cattle, showing that tissue concentration can be several times higher than plasma concentration.
Lifschitz et al., 29 Feb 2000, peer-reviewed, 7 authors. Contact: adrianl@vet.unicen.edu.ar.
This PaperIvermectinAll
Comparative distribution of ivermectin and doramectin to parasite location tissues in cattle
A Lifschitz, G Virkel, J Sallovitz, J F Sutra, P Galtier, M Alvinerie, C Lanusse
Pharmacokinetic studies have been used traditionally to characterize drug concentration profiles achieved in the bloodstream. However, endectocide molecules exert their persistent and broad spectrum activity against parasites localized in many different tissues. The aim of this study was to compare the distribution of ivermectin (IVM) and doramectin (DRM) to different tissues in which parasites are found following subcutaneous administration to calves. Holstein calves weighing 120-140 kg were injected in the shoulder area with commercially available formulations of IVM (Ivomec 1% MSD AGVET, NJ, USA) (Group A) or DRM (Dectomax 1%, Pfizer, NY, USA) (Group B). Two treated calves were sacrificed at 1, 4, 8, 18, 28, 38, 48 or 58 days post-treatment. Plasma, abomasal and small intestinal fluids and mucosal tissues, bile, faeces, lung and skin samples were collected, extracted, derivatized and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection to determine IVM and DRM concentrations. IVM and DRM were distributed to all the tissues and fluids analyzed. Concentrations >0.1 ng/ml (ng/g) were detected between 1 and 48 days post-treatment in all the tissues and fluids investigated. At 58 days post-treatment, IVM and DRM were detected only in bile and faeces, where large concentrations were excreted. Delayed T max values for DRM (4 days post-administration) compared to those for IVM (1 day) were observed in the different tissues and fluids. High IVM and DRM concentrations were measured in the most important target tissues, including skin. The highest IVM and DRM concentrations were measured in abomasal mucosa and lung tissue. Enhanced availabilities of both IVM (between 45 and 244%) and DRM (20-147%) were obtained in tissues compared to plasma. There was good correlation between concentration profiles of both compounds in plasma and target
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