RCT 168 very late stage severe condition hospitalized patients comparing CQ, HCQ, and ivermectin not showing significant differences. Authors were unable to add a control arm due to ethical issues.
Authors claim that "the mortality rates of the three groups are very similar to historical reports of other studies that used placebo in hospitalized patients", without providing any reference. However [sciencedirect.com]
shows 43% hospital mortality in the northern region of Brazil, where the study was performed, from which we can estimate the mortality with ivermectin in this study is 47% lower, RR 0.53. Further, the study is restricted to more severe cases, hence the expected mortality may be higher.
Galan et al., 8 Mar 2021, peer-reviewed, 19 authors.